001 – SUITABILITY OF WATER FROM THE CONTINENTAL TERMINAL OF SOKOTO BASIN IN NORTH WESTERN NIGERIA FOR IRRIGATION
Authors: Ette O.J1, Okuofu. C.A2, Adie. D.B2 and Igboro. S.B2
1Nigeria Atomic Energy Commission (NAEC), FCT, Abuja. Email address: email@example.com
2Water resources and Environmental Engineering Department, Ahmadu Bello University, (ABU), Zaria, Nigeria.
Physico-chemical parameters of water are major factors limiting optimum agricultural yield in irrigated agriculture especially practiced in arid and semi-arid areas like Sokoto Basin, Nigeria. Some vital quality parameters of the groundwater of Gwandu Formation a Continental Terminal of Sokoto Basin were evaluated for the criteria of irrigation water suitability. Twenty eight water samples were collected from existing wells in July 2013 and April 2014 from different locations in Gwandu Formation (Eocene) covering Sokoto, Kebbi and Zamfara States, which constitutes Sokoto Basin and were subjected to physicochemical analyses. The physicochemical analysis conducted on the representative water samples of Gwandu Formation were in accordance with standard procedure. The electrical conductivity (EC) value of water of the study area ranges from 10.9 to 760.0μ½/cm (mean =164.93μ½/cm). The total dissolved solid (TDS) values range from 0.00 to 536.63ppm (mean= 116.08ppm). The study revealed that EC, and TDS, evaluated were suitable for irrigation. Besides, the results realized from advance assessment and evaluation of physicochemical parameters for Residual Sodium Carbonate (RSC), Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR),and Soluble Sodium Percentage (SSP), water quality variables, were found within the permissible limits for irrigation purposes. The RSC value obtained varies from -1.73 to 1.12meq/L (mean= -0.21meq/L), while the values of SAR of the water samples range from 0.02 to 1.82meq/L with an average value of 0.45meq/L, and SSP values were found to vary from 5.34 to 75.1% with a mean of 34.14%. Ground water development of Gwandu Formation, the Continental Terminal of Sokoto Basin via planned irrigation projectsis therefore recommended.
Key Words: Nigeria, Irrigation, and Physico-Chemical Water Parameters
002 – EVALUATION OF THE EFFECT OF CHRONIC ADMINISTRATION OF LOCAL GIN (OGOGORO) ON SOME REPRODUCTIVE HORMONES IN ADULT MALE WISTAR RATS.
Authors: 1C. N. Chima, 1M. A. Dewu, 2A. A. Abubakar.
1.Department of Human Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, kaduna Nigeria
2.Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, kaduna Nigeria
Corresponding author email address: firstname.lastname@example.org
Phone Number: +2347035638389
Alcohol-related disorders are important causes of morbidity and mortality globally. Ogogoro is one of the locally made alcoholic beverages, which is prepared by the distillation of the fermented sap of Raphia palms (Raphia hookeri) coconut palm (cocus nucifera) and oil palm (Elaeis guinesis). The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of chronic administration of local gin (Ogogoro) on some reproductive hormones in adult male wistar rats. Twenty (20) adult male wistar rats were divided into four groups of 5 rats (n=5) each. Group I (control) was administered with Normal saline 2ml/kg, Groups II-IV: Ogogoro 3.5ml/kg, 7ml/kg, 14ml/kg respectively. Administration was done orally once daily for eight (8) weeks, after which animals were euthanized and 5ml of blood collected through cardiac puncture. The serum was used to assay for follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormones and testosterone for all the groups. One way ANOVA was used to compare the statistical significance of the results. The result showed a significant decrease in serum level of testosterone and serum luteinizing hormone (LH) in groups 3 and 4 respectively when compared to the control. There was no significant difference in serum follicle stimulating hormone between the groups when compared to the control at P> 0.05. This study has shown that chronic administration of 7ml/kg and 14ml/kg of Ogogoro significantly decreased serum testosterone and luteinizing hormone (LH) level which could invariably lead to male infertility.
Keywords: Ogogoro, Reproduction, Infertility, Follicle stimulating hormone, Luteizing hormone, Testosterone
003 – PREVALENCE OF TAENIA EGGS IN SOILS OF RECREATIONAL PARKS OF ABUJA CENTRAL AREA, NIGERIA
Author: F.I Mohammed1, I.M Mohammed2, U.D Idriss3, A. Abdulkadir1 and R.Z Usman1
1College of Agriculture and Animal Science, Mando- Road Kaduna.
2Livestock and Pest Control Department, Ministry of Agriculture, Abuja.
3Samaru College of Agriculture, A.B.U Zaria,
Soil contaminated with Taenia eggs can cause health-related problems, mostly to people who come in contact with such soil. The presence of parasitic forms within urban squares and public recreation areas is
of a significant health risk. This research work studied 184 soil samples from 16 selected recreational parks in Abuja to ascertain the prevalence, of Taenia eggs using zinc sulphate flotation medium with a specific gravity of 1.25. Of the 16 recreational parks randomly selected out of the 20 recreational parks in the central area, Teania egg were found in 15 parks. Out of the 184 soil samples examined, 49 samples were contaminated with Taenia eggs. A total of 12290 Taenia eggs were found in the 49 soil samples.
Millennium Park had the highest Taenia eggs count of 3640 (29.62%) followed by Jabi Lake Park with 2020 (16.44%) Taenia eggs, then Orbit Garden with 1800 (14.65%) Taenia eggs and Wuse Market Park with 1200 (9.93%) Taenia eggs. The other 11 recreational parks had Taenia eggs count of less than 900 each. Based on this, it is recommended that public awareness on appropriate hygiene practices should be practiced while ensuring the presence of sufficient sanitary facilities and enforcing land use regulations.
004 – CAPACITY FOR BIOREMEDIATION OF LABORATORY-INDUCED CRUDE OIL POLLUTION BY BOWSTRING-HEMP (SANSEVIERIA LIBERICA)
Authors: Igomu, M. N.,Anzenge, P. M., Akaazwana, L. and Aorkwagh, M. T.
Department of Basic Sciences, Akperan Orshi College of Agriculture, Yandev, Benue State, Nigeria.
The objective of this work was to investigate the capability of bowstring-hemp (Sansevieria liberica) to degrade crude oil pollution. This was determined using 0.3, 1.3 and 6.3% v/w concentrations of crude oil which were employed to pollute the soil planted with the stem cuttings of the plant. These treatments were repeated in non-vegetated soils while the control had no crude oil pollution. Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) were determined for both vegetated and non-vegetated soils as well as the leaves, stem and roots using Gas Chromatography–Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID). TPH degraded in the vegetated soils were 95.8, 88.5 and 68.1% while those of non-vegetated soils were 94.93, 85.58 and 65.81% for 0.3, 1.3 and 6.3% v/w crude concentrations, respectively. S liberica alone degraded 0.87, 2.92 and 2.29% for the same treatments. Percentage accumulations of 0.3% v/w crude oil pollution for the leaf, stem and root were 0.002, 0.036 and 0.209%, respectively, those for 1.3% v/w were 0.004, 0.067 and 0.315%, respectively while those of 6.3% v/w were 0.008, 0.085 and 0.43%, respectively. Most degradation took place in 0.3 % v/w crude oil concentration, while the highest percentage accumulation of hydrocarbons occurred in the root for same concentrations.
Key words: Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH), degradation and accumulation.
005 – ASSESSMENT OF FERTILIZER QUALITY OF FRESH AND DIGESTED CEREAL STRAW CODIGESTED WITH COW DUNG FOR BIOGAS PRODUCTION
Authors: M.D.Abdullahi, 1 E.M. Shaibu-Imodagbe, 1andS.B. Igboro, 2
1Samaru College of Agriculture, Division of Agricultural College
Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.
2Water Resources and Environmental Engineering
Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria
v Corresponding author: Eemail@example.comTel: 8031118211
In this paper, laboratory analyses of cow dung and pretreated and optimized straws of maize, sorghum, millet with cowdung were assessed and compared for their ash and nutrient content before and after anaerobic digestion. These comparison where also on the basis of their proportion of Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P), Potassium (K) content before and after anaerobic digestion. Standard methods were used for detecting their ash and N,P,K content.Results of the analysis on the difference in Ash contents between the fresh and digested biomass shows an increase of 38%, 43%, 38% and 36% in Cow dung (Control), Sorghum + Cow dung (MD ), Maize + Cow dung (MD ) and Millet + Cow dung (MD ) respectively; the 1 2, 3
order being : MD > MD > Control (C) > MD .While the overall trend in N, P, K content after the 1 2 3 experiment is MD > MD > Control > MD . This order suggests that MD containedthe highest mineral 1 2 3 1 elements or plants macro and micro nutrients such as Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P), Potassium (K), Calcium (Ca), Magnesium (Mg), Manganese (Mn), Zinc (Zn), Copper (Cu) etc. while MD contained the 3 least of these elements. Therefore, MD can be concluded as the one with the best fertilizer quality. This 1 study also identified that, the ash contents of all biomass increased to about 40% on average a after anaerobic digestions.This implies that, the digested biomass has better fertilizing effect, because the mineral or inorganic content of biomass is reflected in its ash content. The more the ash content the higher
the mineral contents (N, P, K, etc.) and by implication the better the fertilizer quality of the substrate.
Keywords: Fertilizer Quality, Cereal Crop’s Straws, Cow Dung
006 – PROXIMATE ANALYSIS OFSELECTED CEREAL STRAW CO-DIGESTED WITH COW DUNG FOR BIOGAS PRODUCTION
Authors: M.D. Abdullahi, 1 E.M. Shaibu-Imodagbe, 1and S.B. Igboro, 2
1Samaru College of Agriculture, Division of Agricultural College,
Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.
2Water Resources and Environmental Engineering,
Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria
Corresponding Author e-mail:firstname.lastname@example.orgTel: 8031118211
Within the overall objective of environmentally sustainable management of agricultural solid waste and generating house-hold energy, this paper evaluate the laboratory results of proximate analyses (PA) of selected cereal straws of Maize, Sorghum and Millet before and after anaerobic digestion (A D) to n produce biogas. Each straw was milled to 1-2mm particle size and thermally pretreated for 1-2hours at 1000C. one hundred and eighty (180g) of each Straw was then mixed with 6kg of Cow. Some portion of this mixture was taken to the laboratory for PAbefore A D and some were mixed with right proportion of water to obtained at least 8% dry weight of the sampleand placed in anair tight digester for digestion to take place for 40 days and thereafter taken to the laboratory for same proximate analysis i.e. after digestion. In the PAthose physico-chemical properties which have direct bearing on biogas production capacity (BPC) of the biomass resources such as Moisture Content (MC), Total Solids (TS),Ash Content (AC), Volatile Solid (VS) and Carbon to Nitrogen ration (C/N)were analysed. The parameters analysed before A D were used as indices for quantitative assessment of biogas production Capacity (BPC) of the n biomasses while parameter analysed after A D shed more light on the extent of degradation of organic n matter within the digester. The results shows that the mixture of sorghum straw and cow dung (MD ) has 1 31.69% and 69.89% of MC, 68.31% and 39.11% TS, 62.55% and 17.77% VS, 31.55% and 5.71% C/N,
26.74% and 38.24% AC. The mixture of maize straw and cow dung (MD ) has 32.86% and 61.06% of MS, 2 67.14% and 38.94% TS, 62.81% and 18.97% VS, 30.61% and 5.95% C/N, 26.00% and 35.78% AC. The mixture of millet straw and cow dung (MD ) has 32.08% and 60.28% of MS, 67.92% and 39.72% TS, 2
63.45% and 21.09% VS, 31.45% and 7.41% C/N, 25.41% and 34.66% AC. Cow dung only (control) has 40.00% and 65.20% of MS, 60.00% and 34.80% TS, 61.47% and 18.45% VS, 28.29% and 5.49% C/N, 25.00% and 34.50% AC, all results are before and after A D respectively. At the end of the study it was n
revealed that, MD is the best biomass resources for biogas production in this study because it possess the 1 highest BPC and highest conversion of organic matter after A D following the final ranking intern of BPC, n thus: MD >MD >MD >Control. 1 2 3
Keywords: Biogas, Proximate Analysis (PA), Cereal crop’s Straw, Cow dung
007 – MEASUREMENT OF RADIATION DOSE IN ONCOLOGY AND RADIOTHERAPY UNIT AT AHMADU BELLO UNIVERSITY TEACHING HOSPITAL, SHIKA, ZARIA
Authors: M. U. Saidu and ^T.C. Akpa
*Samaru College of Agriculture, Division of Agricultural Colleges,
Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria.
^Nigerian Nuclear Regulatory Authority, Garki, Abuja
Within the Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital (ABUTH), is the Oncology and Radiotherapy unit accomplished with Cobalt-60 machine, Brachytherapy and Orthovoltage radiation facilities and Chemotherapy ward. Radiation dose survey was carried out in all the rooms in the unit and also background radiation measurement was carried out within the hospital premises. Atomtex dose rate meter and Thermo lumine scence detector (TLD) chips were used in the work with the results at error of 5%.
The radiation dose rate measured with the TLD chips was 13.17% higher than that of the Atomtex meter. This indicated a small difference which is due to the difference of the inbuilt radiation materials in each detector. A high absorbed dose rate0f 0.50μSv/h (meter) and 0.54μSv/h (TLD) were measured in the cobalt-60 machine room. The value is insignificant compared to recommended dose 1.0mSv/h at 1m distance from the source. The mean radiation level in all the rooms at the unit was 0.21±0.02μSv/h with meter and 0.23μSv/h with TLD while the background Radiation level within the hospital environment was 0.14±0.01μSv/h. The radiation dose rate at the unit was higher than the background radiation level within the hospital premises by 10%. This indicated an indoor/outdoor radiation level and of course the presence of radiation facilities in the unit. The radiation level measured around the radiation facilities and hospital premises were small and within radiation level standard of 5.0mSv/year for radiation workers and 1.0mSv/year for public as reported by UNSCEAR, 2000
Keywords: Background radiation, dose ratedose, Dose rate meter, TLD, Leakage radiation, Gamma ray, radiation Sources, ICRP.
008 – RADIOACTIVITY CONCENTRATIONS AND RADIOLOGICAL
HAZARDSOF DEGRADED MINE TAILINGS FROM HIGH BACKGROUND RADIATION AREA ON THE JOS- PLATEAU, NIGERIA
Authors: M.U. Said *D.J. Adeyemo
*Physics Education Unit, Science Education Division, Institute of Education,
Ahmadu Bello University Zaria
**Centre for Energy Research and Training (CERT) Ahmadu Bello University Zaria. E-mail of corresponding Author; email@example.com
The soils of degraded minefield farmland in three Local Government Area; Bokkos, Jos south and Barikin-Ladi of extensive mining of tin on the Jos plateau were analyzed for radioactivity concentration. Spectrometry was used for the activity concentration analysis (of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th) and the result was compared with the global standard as reported from UNSCEAR, 2000. The mean activity concentration of K-40 ranged from 86.00±6.58 to 121.31±6.40Bqkg-1 (Average 108Bqkg-1) which is far
less than the global standard of 420Bqkg-1. Ra-226 mean activity concentration ranged from 39.82±4.01 to 75.4343±4.83 (Averaged 59Bqkg-1) which is greater than the global standard of 33Bqkg-1. Th-232 activity concentration level ranged from 44.46±2.39 to 62.06±2.87Bqkg-1 (Averaged 57Bqkg-1) which is greater than the global standard of 45Bqkg-1. The determined average absorbed dose rate, annual effective dose rate andradium equivalent were found to be 67.02nGh-1 (higher than the global standard 57nGy/h),82.25ìSvy-1(higherthan the global standard 70μSv/h) and 148.53Bqkg-1(less than the global standard 370Bq/kg) respectively. The results show insignificant radiation hazard due to non-uniform distribution of the natural radionuclides in the soil samples The determined average external (H ) and ex internal (H ) hazard indices were found to be 0.50 and 0.80 respectively. The radiological hazard indices in do not exceed the global standard of unity. The result also revealed that there insignificant potential health risk due to primordial radionuclide in the soil samples from the area studied in this present work.
Key Words: Radioactivity, Radionuclides, dose rate NORMS, TENORMS, Radiological Indices, Health hazard
009 – ASSESSMENT OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY MEASURES AND AWARENESS AMONG THE LABORATORY AND TECHNICAL STAFF OF SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN KADUNA STATE
Authors: Suleiman, Shaibu Asuku 1* Jesulowo, Janet Funke1 Salawu, Abdulhameed,2 Abdulraheem, Aliyu3 Suleiman, Onuja Ilyasu4
- Samaru College of Agriculture/Division of Agricultural Colleges, ABU-Zaria.
- Federal University Lokoja, Kogi State
- School of Basic and Remedial Studies, ABU-Zaria.
- Model Learning Secondary School, Samaru Zaria.
Corresponding author’s email : * (firstname.lastname@example.org)
This research of Assessment of Occupational Safety Measures and Awareness among the Laboratories and Technical staff of Secondary Schools in Kaduna State, twenty secondary schools were randomly
selected for this study in Kaduna State. The Schools spread across the three Senatorial zones of the state with eight in Kaduna North, seven in Kaduna Central and five in Kaduna South Two methods were adopted; on-the-spot assessment of the safety facilities in the selected schools and the analysis of response from questionnaires. Distributed to the workers. Thirty questionnaires (5-Likert scale) were distributed to the selected schools. Descriptive statistics software of version IBM 23 was used for the statistical analyses with t-critical at 1.96. The result of on-the-spot assessment show that 70% of the schools in the study area have no occupational safety measure in place for their laboratory and technical staff while 30% show
varying degree of compliance to safety measures. The results of the statistical analysis of the questionnaires shows cumulative mean of 3.61; the awareness of technicians and laboratory staff has tcalculated value of 0.75 which is insignificant; while level of awareness among gender shows t-calculated of 0.41 which is also insignificant. Level of occupational safety awareness among the laboratory staff has t-calculated value of 29.54 which is very significant. The level of occupational safety awareness among this category of workers is high with level of education playing a significant role. It was therefore recommended among others that government at all levels should enact relevant laws to protect this category of workers in their work place. There is need for the secondary school laboratory workers to form registered labour union to enforce their right to occupational safety and demand better wages. To train the category of workers on hazard management and prevention
Keywords: Occupation, Safety, Laboratory Staff
010 – AWARENESS AND KNOWLEDGE OF HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS PATIENTS TO HUMAN AFRICAN TRYPANOSOMOSIS IN ANKPA GENERAL HOSPITAL, KOGI STATE, NIGERIA
Authors: Wada, Y¹*. Ajogi, I². Dzikwi, A.A². Lawal, I.A³. Abdulazeez, M.T4.
*Corresponding Author. Wada, Y. Department of Zoology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria
Tel; +2348034280146 E-Mail wadayusuf34@gmail.Com
²Department Of Veterinary Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Faculty Of Veterinary Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, P.M.B. 1069 Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria.
³Department Of Veterinary Parasitology and Entomology, Faculty Of Veterinary Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, P.M.B. 1069 Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria.
4Biology Department, School of Sciences, Federal College of Education Zaria.
Human African Trypanosomosis (HAT) is a serious disease of man and animal. The present study was aimed at investigating the awareness and knowledge of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) patients to HAT in Ankpa General Hospital, Kogi State. Trypanosoma brucei gambiense infection decreases the specificities of antibody detection test for HIV diagnosis. HAT symptoms are nonspecific, variable and inconsistent, and alone are insufficient for diagnosis. Ethical clearance was obtained from Kogi State Ministry of Health. Four hundred and sixty five close ended structured questionnaires were administered and information on the knowledge and awareness of the HIV patients to HAT were obtained after their informed consent. The questionnaires were pre tested and validated before administering. Out of the 465 respondents, 79.35% (369/465) heard about HAT and 20.64% (96/465) never did. The knowledge of the respondents was poor. The medium of awareness were mainly through stories told 67.71% (250/369) and through schools 32.35% (119/369). None of the respondents were however aware through medical personnel, radio or television. There was however no statistical association between sex of the
respondents and awareness to Human African Trypanosomosis (p = 0.1623). Furthermore, there was a significant association between the level of education (P = 0.0001), occupation (P = 0.0001) and age (P = 0.0001) of the respondents and awareness to HAT. The survey revealed that though majority of the respondents were aware of HAT, the respondents’ knowledge on the cause, transmission, prevention and control of HAT was insufficient.
Key words: Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Human African Trypanosomosis, Knowledge, Ankpa General Hospital.
011 – ACARICIDAL EFFICACY OF ANANCARDIUM OCCIDENTALE L. (CASHEW) LEAF AND STEM BARK METHANOL EXTRACTS ON AMBLYOMMA VARIEGATUM F. (TICKS)
Authors: 1Yusuf, A., 2Wada, Y., 2Wada Y. A. and 1Ekpo, Z.
1Department of Biology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zara, Nigeria
2Department of Zoology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zara, Nigeria
For correspondence: email@example.com
Anancardium occidentale L. (cashew) methanol leaves and stem bark extracts were evaluated for their acaricidal efficacy against Amblyomma variegatum F. (ticks). Phyochemical analysis (qualitative and quantitative) was carried out, and four different concentrations were evaluated (25 mg/ml, 50 mg/ml, 75 mg/ml and 100 mg/ml) and controls using distilled water (negative control) and synthetic acaricide (Amitrax) used as standard control. Three hundred ticks were used, 10 ticks per petri dish in three replicate were exposed to different concentrations. Two-way analysis of variance was used to compare the mean mortality of ticks exposed to the different concentrations. The lethal concentration (LC ) was determined 50
using probit analysis. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, phenols, while anthraquinones was absent. There was significant difference in mean mortality of ticks at different concentrations; Mortality was concentration and time dependent. 75 mg/ml 100 mg/ml concentration of the leaves extracts gave the highest mortality (10.00 ± 0.00) and for the stem bark extract 100% mortality of the ticks were observed at 100 mg/ml concentration of the extracts (10.00 ±
0.00). There was significant difference in A. variegatum mortality with respect to the leaf and stem back extract, however acaricidal effect of leaf extract had greater efficacy compared to stem bark extract.
Keywords: Anacardium occidentale, Amblyomma variegatum, Acaricidal effects and Acarology
012 – ADAPTATION OF THREE PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR AS A STANDALONE SELF EXCITED GENERATOR, (SEIG).
Authors: Okorie P.U1 , Osaji E2 and Kunya A.B3.
1,2,3 Department of Electrical Computer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria
The increasing importance of energy demand has been responsible for the revival of interest in so-called alternative source of energy. Thus, the drive towards the decentralization of power generation and increasing use of non-conventional energy sources such as wind energy, bio-gas, solar and hydro potential, etc. have become essential to adopt a low cost generating system, which is capable of operating in the remote areas, and in conjunction with the variety of prime movers. A self-excited (Stand-Alone)
asynchronous machine (SEIG) to generate sustainable AC voltage was investigated experimentally in this work. Using evaluated three power capacitors connected in delta with the output leads of the induction
machine, enabled a maximum phase voltage of 245 volts at a speed of 1500 rpm. The self-excited induction generator performance characteristics were investigated by carrying out no-load test and load test using resistive, capacitive, inductive and a combination of these loads as long as the machine was not overloaded. Apart from the capacitors acting as the exciter, it also plays the role of compensating for the reactive power in the system. Effects of various system parameters on the steady-state performance have been studied, and the results presented provided guidelines for optimum design of such systems.
Keyword: SEIG, inductor, generator, capacitor, machine, synchronous, voltage and frequency.