001 – DEVELOPMENT AND INTEGRATION OF SELF-HEALING SCHEME AND FAULT DIAGNOSING SYSTEM – PETRI NET FDS-PN TOOL FOR ASSESSMENT OF AEDC NETWORK SYSTEM INFRASTRUCTURE
Authors: P. U. Okorie 1, U. O. Alyu 2, B. Jimoh And S.T. Taiwo
1,Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria – Nigeria.
2 Electrical Programme, School of Engineering, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Bauchi – Nigeria. email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Self-healing scheme fundamentally concerns with the implementation of a fast fault detection algorithm teamed with fast restoration plan within the context of the modern distribution system to guarantee continuous delivery of electricity to a maximum number of consumers at minimum operational costs. This conceptual operation of self-healing system is being adopted by distribution system operators in varying degree of complexity. The development of a self-healing architecture for Abuja distribution network as a case study is driven by the foregoing conceptual framework in order to secure continuous delivery of electrical energy to consumers at all times
in the foreseeable future. There are four zones for the proposed work, each zone fed by 132/33kV substation, comprise of Katampe (Zone 1), Kubwa
(Zone 2), Central (Zone 3) and Apo (Zone 4) including their respective dedicated 33kV feeder networks and interconnections amongst them. The fairly developed part of AEDC feeder network supplying the central business district of the Abuja FCT is adopted to illustrate the integration of FDSPN with self-healing scheme. The aim is driver towards evaluating the reliability indices (SAIDI, SAIFI, CAIDI, ASAI etc) of the network. The finding
of network performances proves adequate results as this approach adopted improved the reliability indices of the network, coupled with strict regulations on the quality and reliability of supply mounts increasing pressure on the distribution network operators to keep the network at the best possible state. While huge investments are already being made on replacing the aging infrastructure to prevent equipment failure, the chance of failure however, cannot be completely eliminated. For the faults that cannot be prevented, it is therefore necessary to minimize the impact of outage time to the affected customers as few as possible. Complexity of networks are omnipresent and critical to economic and social well-being
(Amin , 2001); Ouyang, (2014) and (Horan & Reany, 2002). Reliability is the characteristics of an item expressed as the probability that it will perform a
required function under stated conditions for a stated period of time. It is an extension of quality into a time domain and is paraphrased as the
probability of non-failure in a given period. Self-healing is a mechanism through which a system, component or equipment communicate within the system themselves in terms of their functions. Many network services are already self-configuring today, but this capability is not yet universally available for the broad spectrum of network services or networked environments (Melcher and Mitchell, 2004) Figure 1 shows a functional block diagram of the self-healing power distribution configuration system (Butler-Purry,2005) and Cavdaroglu et al, (2013).
02 ARCHITECTURAL DETERMINANTS OF OCCUPANTS HEALTH AND HEALTHYLIVING IN MIXED USE BUILDINGS, LAGOS, NIGERIA
Author: L. O. Usman, H. M. Babangida,
Department of Architecture, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria
Correspondence Email Address: email@example.com
Healthy living is to among other factors determined by ability to make smart health choices such as eating well, being physically active and being emotionally sound. On the other hand, living an unhealthy lifestyle exposes human populations to noncommunicable disease which include cancer, heart disease, type 2 diabetes, obesity and early menopause in women among many others. The physical environment people live to a great extent affects the health status of its occupants among many other factors. Hence, the aim of this paper is to identify the architectural features embedded within the physical environment that promote occupants health and their healthy living using mixed use building as case study. To achieve this key objective, a triangulation method was employed as guiding methodology. The first method involves a systematic literature search to identify architectural features which directly or otherwise affect building occupants’ health from extant studies and secondly undertook case study approach three case studies to test how effective these architectural features are in promoting health and healthy living. The findings indicated that adequate architectural outcomes such as natural lighting, noise control and ventilation with a mean Likert scale score of Mean- 4.7 were the key architectural design outcomes that promote healthy living, in addition to other design requirements that encourage incidental movements and social connection such as vertical and horizontal walking. However, presence of healing garden with a mean score of Mean-3.64 was found to be the architectural feature with the least impact towards promoting healthy living in mixed use buildings. By way of conclusion, therefore, professionals in the built environment need to focus on providing design solutions that enhances the functions of human senses (ears, eyes and nose) as well as those elements of design that encourages physical exercises among occupants.
Keywords: Health, Healthy Living, Architectural, Design outcome, Design elements, Mixed-use building.
03. ISOTHERMAL EQUILIBRIUM AND KINETIC STUDIES OF THE USE OF MANGIFERA INDICA AND PHOENIX DACTYLIFERA SEEDS POWDERS IN WASTEWATER TREATMENT
Author: Kuhiyop E. A., Adie D. B., Abubakar U. A.
Department of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna State.
Corresponding Author’s email: firstname.lastname@example.org
ABSTRACT: This research was aimed at studying the possibility of combining Mangifera indica and Phoenix dactylifera seeds powders as coagulants in wastewater treatment. To achieve this, the seeds were cleaned, dried, husk removed and then crushed. The oil was extracted from the crushed seeds using solvent extraction, with the dried cake used as coagulant in treating the waste water. Initial parameters of the wastewater including BOD and COD were measured before setting out to study the removal of BOD by combining Mangifera indica (MI) and Phoenix dactylifera (PD) seeds powders over concentration ranges of 5-25 mg/l. The experimental data over the studied concentrations ranges of 5-25 mg/l was processed using the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The Pseudo-first and second order kinetic models were studied from the plots of time versus amount (mg/l) of BOD removed using MI, PDand the combination of the two. The experiment was observed to fit the Freundlich isotherm model based on the Freundlich constants and the coefficient of determination, R2. The experiment was observed tohave followed the pseudo-second order kinetic model as indicated by the K , R2, and Error analyses carried 2 out on the experimental data. In conclusion, it was shown that Mangifera indica was more effective than Phoenix dactylifera for the removal of BOD.
Key words: Mangifera indica, Phoenix dactylifera, Kinetics, Isothermal
04. EVALUATION OF HOSPITAL WASTE MANAGEMENT IN SELECTED HOSPITALS WITHIN KADUNA METROPOLIS
Author: 1Abdullahi N. I., 1Ibrahim F.B. And 2Giwa A.
1 Department of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering, ABU Zaria, Nigeria
2 Department of Textile, ABU Zaria, Nigeria
Corresponding author: email@example.com
Management of healthcare wastes is an issue of concern particularly in urban centres. It is in line with this that this study examines various aspects of hospital waste management, such as the level of awareness of health workers, training they receive on health-care waste management, waste collection, pre-treatment and disposal within Kaduna metropolis. Nine hospitals within Kaduna metropolis were selected and assessed, through reconnaissance survey, key informant interview and questionnaire administration. A total of 300 questionnaires were administered across the hospitals out of which 194 (65%) were returned. The result of the study showedthat only 17% of the respondents attended training on health-care waste management in the last 12 months. On the need for proper training on health-care waste management, 75% of the respondents considered having such training as very important. The study found that employers concern towards health-care waste management is more among people of higher age group, (45 –50 years) with about 90% of respondents in that group being highly concerned about health-care waste management. In terms of profession, workers that are directly involved with health-care waste management are more concerned about its management than persons of other professions such as doctors and nurses. The overall evaluation of management of waste in the facilities visited as at time of this study was found to be inadequate.
Key words: Hospital waste, Management, Training, Waste collection, disposal
05 – SUPPORTING ABILITY IN DISABILITY THROUGH ARCHITECTURE: ASSESSMENT OF ARCHITECTURAL ELEMENTS FOR ENHANCED PARTICIPATION OF MOBILITY IMPARED PERSONS IN RECREATION ACTIVITIES
Author: F.B. Shehu, H. M. Babangida
Department of Architecture, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria. Corresponding Author: firstname.lastname@example.org
ABSTRACT: Until recently, designs of buildings and specificallypublic buildings focussed more on providing what the normal body requires rather than for all categories of users, especially the mobility impaired persons. Recent architectural design efforts have however, lead to the development of design concepts and principles such as ‘universal design, inclusive design and design for all, to address the needs of these categories of building users. The aim of this paper is to identify the level of application of inclusive design principles (IDP) which has now become critical requirements in all designs with specific reference to recreation centres using three case studies in Abuja, Nigeria The research was undertaken using a case study approach in which three existing recreation centres in Abuja were selected. Their selection was based on their functional and operational characteristics in providing a wide range of recreation facilities to both abled bodies and the m o b i l i t y i m p a i re d p e r s o n s . P r i o r t o t h e commencement of the case study survey, a checklist of a rc h i t e c t u r a l e l e m e n t s a n d o t h e r d e s i g n considerations with specific reference to accessibility based on the principles of inclusive design was developed and used in assessing the prevalence or otherwise of these features in the three cases studied. The measured accessibility features in the recreation centres include equitable use, simple and intuitive use, low physical efforts and flexibility in use of elements. Others include availability of perceptible information, tolerance for error and ‘size and spaces for approach and use’. The results of the assessment analysis indicated that only one of the cases studied scored atleast 50% level in ‘perceptible information’ as element of inclusive design. This finding implies that there is low application of IDP in recreations centres which ultimately limits participation of the mobility impaired persons. The implication of this finding should prompt designers and professionals in the built environment to apply these principles in the design of recreation centres in Abuja and elsewhere so that the notion of ability in disability could be achieved
Keywords: Accessibility, Inclusive design, Mobility impaired persons, Recreation centres.
06 – ENUMERATION OF BACTERIAL LOAD AND ISOLATION OF COLIFORM BACTERIA IN CANNED FOODS SOLD WITHIN ZARIA METROPOLIS OF KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA
Author: B. V. Maikai and H. A. Omar
1Department of Veterinary Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria
Canned foods have potentials for contamination with microbes. To determine the bacteria load of canned foods sold within Zaria metropolis, 24 samples of eight brands of canned foods were pour-plated on nutrient agar. Salmonella isolation was by enrichment on tetrathionate broth followed by Salmonella –Shigella agar plating and biochemical characterization of isolates. Twenty (83.3%) of the cans were positive for bacterial growth. Baked beans had the highest bacterial load of 1.9 x 105 CFU/g while sweet corn had the least (1.7 x 103 CFU/g). No Salmonella (0%) was isolated but there were three coliform bacteria as follows: Enterobacter spp (10; 41.7%), Citrobacter spp (2; 8.3%) and Shigella spp (1; 4.2%). In addition, Pseudomonas spp was isolated (3; 12.5%). There was statistical significant difference between bacterial growth and pH of the can’s content ( 2لا =7.2, df= 2. P= 0.027). The study has shown that the canned foods examined had low bacterial load < 106 but the isolation of other pathogenic organisms is of public health importance.
Key words: Canned foods, bacterial load, Zaria
07 – MODULATORY ROLE OF ANTIOXIDANT VITAMINS (A AND E) IN CYANIDE INDUCED LIVER AND BRAIN DAMAGE IN ADULT MALE ALBINO MICE
Authors: Aishatu Abubakar Ishaku1, Mohammed Mabrouk2, Aliyu Mohammed3, Yusuf Tanko3 and Abdullahi Hussein Umar
1Department of Human Physiology, University of Maiduguri
2Department of Human Physiology, Bayero University, Kano
3Department of Human Physiology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria
Corresponding author: email@example.com
Cyanide is a potent neurotoxic substance that can initiate series of intracellular reactions leading to oxidative stress. To evaluate the effect of sub lethal administration of potassium cyanide (KCN)on lipid peroxidation and some antioxidant enzymes in adult malealbino mice and possible ameliorative role of vitamins A and E. Thirty five adult male mice weighing between 18-22 g were used. An acute toxicity study was carried out to determine LD using 50 Locke method. The animals were randomly divided into five groups (n = 7) as follows; group I (control, received deionized water), group II (1.5 mg/kg KCN), group III (1.5mg/kg KCN + 25 mg/kg vitamin A), group IV (1.5 mg/kg KCN + 50 mg/kg vitamin E) and group V (1.5 mg/kg KCN + 25 mg/kg vitamin A + 50 mg/kg vitamin E). Treatment groups was carried out daily through oral gavage for administration of potassium cyanide while vitamins A and E were administered intraperitoneal (IP) for 28 days and on the last day, the animals were sacrificed and isolation o f t i s s u e s f o r b i o c h e m i c a l a s s a y s o f malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, catalase, acetyl cholinesterase and serum liver enzymes. From acute toxicity studies, LD was calculated to be 15 50 mg/kg. Number of deaths was observed along with a s p h y x i a t i o n , d i a r rh o e a a n d c o n v u l s i o n . Vitaminspre-treatedgroups ameliorated some of the toxic signs observed.The results obtained indicated significant (p < 0.05) increase in MDA levels, indicating lipid peroxidation in the cyanide group (3.30±0.19 nMol/mg) compared to the vitamin treated group V (1.82±0.21 nMol/mg). There was a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in inhibition of superoxide dismutase in group II (1.30±0.07 μ/mg) as compared to control (2.43±0.32 μ/mg). Furthermore, a decrease in catalaseinhibition was recorded ingroup II (30.81±1.43 mmol/min/ μ/mg) in comparison to group III (41.60±1.96 mmol/min/ μ/mg).Acetylcholinesterase enzyme activity was significantly increased in group II (32.10±0.90 nmol/min/mg) as compared to the vitamin treated group V (16.20±0.90 nmol/min/mg). Furthermore, liver enzymes AST recorded high levels in the potassium cyanide treated group (155.20±6.44 U/L) when compared to control (45.80±1.77U/L) a decreased was observed in ALT for group V (20.20±1.77 U/L)in contrast to group II (58.80±3.57 U/L). There was an increase in ALP level in vitamin treated group V (42.00±3.74 U/L) as compared to saline group (27.00±2.55 U/L) that was not exposed to potassium cyanide. Antioxidant vitamins (A and E) played an important role in ameliorating the oxidative stress poised by cyanide through stimulating the antioxidant defence system.
08 – EFFECT OF CODEINE CONTAINING COUGH SYRUP ON MOTOR ENDURANCE AND MEMORY IN FEMALE WISTAR RATS
Authors: Maryam B. Akor-dewu1, Maryam S. Abubakar1, Victor Abah1, Fatima L. Ciroma, Ahmed- Sherif Isa1 and Zainab M. Bauchi2
1Department of Human Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Kaduna 2Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Kaduna
Cough syrups are available in Nigeria as over-thecounter medications which usually contain codeine, with a high potential for abuse. This abuse usually leads to addiction which is now becoming common amongst females. This study investigated the effect of codeine containing cough syrup (Benylin with codeine) on long-term memory and motor endurance in female Wistar rats. The rats were grouped into four groups of five rats each. Group A(control) were given 10ml/kg normal saline while groups B, C and D were administered 10.95 mg/kg, 21.90 mg/kg and 43.80 mg/kg dose of Benylin® with codeine respectively once daily for 2 weeks. Long-term memory and motor endurance were evaluated using the fore paw-grip time test and elevated plus maze respectively. The results showed no significant difference (p > 0.05) between the test groups and control for fore paw grip test and elevated plus maze. Based on the findings of this study, it may be suggested that administration of cough syrup with codeine for two weeks did not significantly impair long term memory and motor endurance. Increasing the dose and administrationfor a longer duration may reveal significant results.
Keywords: Codeine, female rats, motor endurance, long-term memory, cough syrup
09 – EFFECTS OF OIL PALM ASH AND MOUND HEIGHT ON THE YIELD OF WATER YAM AND SOIL PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
Authors: 1Olajide, K and 2Ogundare, S K
1Department of Horticulture and Landscape Technology, ABU College of Agriculture, Kabba Division of Agricultural Colleges,
2Agronomy Department, ABU College of Agriculture, Kabba. Division of Agricultural Colleges.
*Corresponding author’s email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Integrated application of oil palm ash, NPK 15:15:15 and mound height on soil physical properties and performance of water yam was carried out in 2018 and 2019 cropping seasons. Experimental design used was a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with a split plot; the two factors employed were the mound height used and nutrient sources. The experiment consisted of three height of mound (60, 40 and 20 cm) and four nutrient sources (Control, NPK 15:15:15 at 400 kg/ha, oil palm residues at 10 t/ha, NPK 15:15:15 at 200 kg/ha + oil palm residues at 5 t/ha). Water yam tubers were cut into tuber sett of 200g size and planted in a plot of size 5 x 4 m. the spacing used was 1 m by 0.8 m, each plot has a total of 25 heaps. Data were collected on germination percentage (%) of water yam at 15 and 30 days, soil physical properties (Moisture content (%), soil bulk density (g/cm3), total porosity (%) and temperature
(0C), vine length (cm), number of leaves, dry weight of aerial parts, number of main stems, fresh weight of tubers/heap, number of tubers per heap, length of tuber, tuber diameter, tuber weight per plot (kg) and tuber weight per ha (t/ha). The results revealed that plots treated with oil palm residues either singly or in combination with NPK 15:15:15 germinated better. At 15 days after planting, plots with mound height of 20 cm gave the highest germination percentage. Plots with mound height of 60 cm produced significantly better percentage germination compared with other mound heights used. Higher moisture content was observed in plots treated with oil palm residues either applied singly or combined with NPK 15:15:15. Moisture content in mounds with 60 cm heights were significantly better in both years. Soil bulk density, soil total porosity and soil temperature were observed to have reduced with increase in mound height in both years. The growth parameters and tuber characters measured were highest in plots with sole application of NPK in both growing seasons. Growth, tuber and yield characters observed were significantly better in plots with highest mound (60 cm) in both years. Plots with sole NPK at 400 kg/ha, and NPK at 200 kg/ha plus oil palm residues at 5 t/ha were significantly better in tuber weight per plot and tuber weight per hectare in both seasons.
Key words: water yam, fertilizer, mound height, growth, yield
010 – SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF BOREHOLE YIELDS IN BASEMENT COMPLEX AQUIFERS
Authors: Adeogun B.K. and Garba B.
Department of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Correspondence to: email@example.com
Groundwater development in some basement complex areas found in places like Katsina and other parts of northern Nigeria is a major challenge because the terrain is generally underlain by rocks of low permeability. This paper evaluated the sustainable management of borehole yields in such an environment directed at assisting people with the knowledge for assessing portable groundwater supply, using Katsina as a case study. Pumping tests were carried out for six boreholes to determine their yields using constant rate test approach. The depths of the boreholes ranged from 60 to 101 m, installed with five inches (127mm) PVC casings. The pump
used for the pumping test was 1.5 horsepower because of the depths. It was discovered that one of the borehole had very high yield of 1.4 l/s and one proved abortive, while five boreholes had relatively low to moderate yield from 0.42 to 1.0 l/s for every 7 to 30 minutes pumping with 5 to 30 minutes lag intervals. The yield from the last borehole was 0.42 l/s for every 7m with 30 minutes lag interval. The low yield boreholes were located in areas of aquifers of low extent. Based on the findings, sustainable management of the borehole yields was suggested by recommending daily four hour cycle of pumping that could yield 42,762 litres/4 hr cycle instead of abandoning the relatively low/moderate yield boreholes. It is recommended that this approach be replicated in other areas with basement complex formations with low yields.
Keywords: Groundwater development,
011 – VALIDATION OF GROUNDWATER POTENTIAL ZONES MAP WITH YIELDS OF EXISTING BOREHOLES AND WELL WATER LEVELS IN OKE-ERO LGA, KWARA STATE, NIGERIA
Authors: Adeogun B. K., Agboola A. A. and Ajibike M.A.
Department of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria
Correspondence to: firstname.lastname@example.org
The motivation for this research project arose from the realization that many boreholes fail in Oke-EroLGA due to improper investigation, and over abstraction of groundwater from areas of low to moderate yields. This research investigated existing borehole yields and well water levels. The values of borehole yield ranged from 0.65 to 3.57 l/s, reflecting a wide margin between the highest and the lowest yield value, with an average yield of 1.35 l/s. This indicates that borehole yield is generally moderate across the study area. The values of borehole depth ranged from 45 to 60 m with an average of 52 m, with a static water level that ranged from 4.2 to 19.7m. The existing groundwater potential zones map of the area was subsequently cross-checked with the pumping test data and well water levels using excel and pearson correlation in SPSS. The excel results of correlation between the borehole yields and groundwater potential map mean yields showed a strongly positive correlation of 0.81 while that of well water level and the groundwater potential zones map mean water level reflected a strongly positive correlation of 0.70. Also, the SPSS pearson correlation between borehole yields and groundwater potential map mean yield indicated a strongly positive correlation of 0.9, while the relationship between well water levels and the groundwater potential zone map mean water level reflected a strongly positive correlation of 0.84. The strongly positive correlation between the map and the borehole yields, and water levels, is an indication that the map can be used in the management plans of groundwater resources and preventing excessive exploitation in the area. The usefulness of water to the survival of both plants and animals cannot be overlooked; all living things depend on water. We use it to wash, drink, cook, swim and lots more and as it is, human beings cannot live more than a few days without water (Agboola, 2019). The quality and quantity of water determine the rate of public health, energy, cell function, food production, and other components of life. The social and economic development of any nation is determined by availability and accessibility to water. Adequate and equitable access to water for most domestic and other uses reduce high level of hunger and poverty in the rural areas. Water deficiency in Nigeria is rising because the demand for water resources is increasing for irrigation, generation of energy and water supply; it also increases with increase in population and economic development, according to the Federal Ministry of Water Resources and Japanese International Cooperation Agency (FMWR-JICA, 2014). Recently, unlike before during dry season the source of groundwater and some rivers dry up utterly (FMWR-JICA, 2014). Hence, proper planning, development and management of water resources is very important more than earlier in order to surpass environmental hazards. For proper groundwater resources utilization, adequate planning and management of the groundwater potential and assessment qualitatively and quantitatively are required. Groundwater may be a suitable resource in many places today, but to keep the groundwater supply