001 – IMPACT OF SOLID WASTES ON WELL WATER QUALITY IN PARTS OF KADUNA METROPOLIS, NIGERIA
Author: Adamu, A., Sani, B.S. and Ibrahim, M.
Department of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering Ahmadu Bello University Zaria. Corresponding author: E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Tel: 08062619284
The monitoring of well water quality is very significant as it helps to ascertain the health hazards
associated with the use of contaminated water. In this study, seven (7) wells (W – W ), were considered at 1 7
distances of: 30 m, 32.5 m, 34 m, 35 m, 37 m, 39 m and 40 m, from a dumpsite. The depths of the wells (W1
- W )were: 10.5, 9.8, 10.6, 10.7, 8.9, 7.5 and 9.5, respectively. The result clearly shows that the presence of 7 the waste dumpsite close to the wells had impacted the quality of their waters. For instance, well W , by 1
virtue of being the closest to the dumpsite was found to have higher readings of measured quality parameters than the remaining six wells despite the fact it had metallic apron. W recorded TDS, BOD, 1
COD, chloride and nitrates of: 356 mg/l, 4.50 mg/l, 430 mg/l, 2.5 mg/l and 4.8 mg/l, respectively during the month of June. On the other hand, it recorded TDS, BOD, COD, chloride and nitrates of: 370 mg/l, 4.90 mg/l, 440 mg/l, 2.82 mg/l, 5.0 mg/l, during the month of July; while it recorded TDS, BOD, COD, chloride and nitrates of: 350 mg/l, 4.52 mg/l, 436 mg/l, 5.6 mg/l and 21.1 mg/l, respectively during the month of August. Result for regression analysis indicates that the depths and distances of the wells to the dump site contributed: 72.2%, 80.8%, 60.4%, 73.0%, 91.3% and 71.4%, respectively for the variations in the turbidity, alkalinity, BOD, COD, chloride and nitrate, which were all statistically significant at 95%
confidence level. On the other hand, the depths and distances of the wells to the dump site contributed only: 16.0%, 3.5%, 46.3%, and 7.3%, respectively to the changes in the electrical conductivity, hardness,
TDS and fluoride of the wells but were not statistically significant at 95% confidence. It was discovered that the wells are more polluted during the rainy season due to higher infiltration of rainwater. It was
recommended that the wells should be provided with proper lining and a cover. Additionally, dumpsites should be adequately designed and strategically located such that they are less likely to be a source of
Keywords: Wells, water quality, Physico-chemical and waste dumpsite
002 – EVALUATION OF RICE HUSK BRIQUETTES AS ALTERNATIVE HOUSEHOLD FUEL FOR RURAL NIGERIA
Authors: 1SHAIBU-IMODAGBE, E. M. 1IDIRISU, H. A., 2GIWA, A. and 3SHEHU, M. A.
1. Department of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria.
2. Department of Textile Science and Technology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria.
3. Department of Agric Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria
*Corresponding Author: Email: email@example.com +234 8023550999
This paper reports the production of briquettes from rice husk as a sustainable and affordable alternative to fuel wood which has caused wide deforestation thus contributing significantly to rising temperatures due
to increased greenhouse effects. The briquetting process advocated in this paper uses a method of low compaction with the addition of appropriate binder in varying proportions. Proximate analysis and physical evaluation tests were undertaken to determine the quality of the briquettes. Starch gel and acacia gum were used as binders in six different proportions to determine the most suitable for use as briquette binder. Sample A made with 60% wt/wt starch gel was found to be the most suitable briquette because of its high heating value of 31, 093.77 kJ/kg. Sample C with 40% (wt/wt) of starch had the second highest with a heating value of 30, 429.58 kJ/kg while sample E with 50% (wt/wt) of acacia gum had recorded the
least heating value of 29, 096.75 kJ/kg. In comparison with existing household fuels, the rice husk briquettes were second best (with 12 minutes) to kerosene (with 11 minutes) in the water boiling test.
These results are strong indications that rice husk briquettes can be used as ready alternative to fuel wood in meeting household energy needs, thus safeguarding our forest resources. This will go a long way in boosting the carbon sequestration potentials of our forests to reduce the green house effects and reduce rising global temperatures. By safeguarding our forest resources, the natural habitat of wild life will be maintained and strengthened. In addition, briquetting rice husks will go a long way in sustainably managing solid wastes from rice mills which presently constitute aesthetic nuisance, fire hazard and a source of danger to playing children in rice producing and milling areas.
Key words: Deforestation, rice husk briquettes, solid waste, biomass, briquetting.
003 – DEVELOPMENT OF DECISION SUPPORT TOOLS FOR WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
Authors: Adeogun, B. K1* and Nwude, M.O2.
1Department of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering,Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria
2National Water Resources Institute, Kaduna, Nigeria
*Corresponding authors: firstname.lastname@example.org
Decision Support Tools (DSTs) are decision trees or decision support systems that use tree-like graphs or models, respectively, for decisions and they are applicable to Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH)
sustainability. DSTs were designed for the selection of appropriate water supply source and sanitary system for rural areas. The decision support systems were based on decision trees designed to aid decision
regarding WASH. The water supply decision tree and sanitation decision tree were integrated in a WASH DST model with two externalities: the WASH practitioners and the WASH environment. A simulation
study was demonstrated to compare the results of the developed decision tree, for water source, with the results of an existing Decision Support System (DSS) algorithm for water supply source selection in
Uzea, Edo State. The DSS algorithm added evaluation scores for each water source cumulatively to arrive at the best most suitable option. The DSS algorithm results showed that ground water and rainwater
harvesting were suitable in the study area with cumulative scores of 121and 116 respectively, and also, the developed water supply decision tree indicated that both water sources were suitable as well. Both
decision support tools showed that surface water was not a suitable option. Consequently, the tools were in good agreement. The developed decision trees are suitable for implementation in any rural setting or
developing country and hence, recommended for use as WASH decision support tools to ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation in any rural setting or developing country.
Key words: WASH, Decision Support Tools, Decision Trees, Decision Support Systems,
004 – DETECTION OF Escherichia coli O157:H7 IN SELECTED PIGGERIES IN SAMARU, ZARIA, KADUNA STATE OF NIGERIA
Authors: Etaba, O. A. and Lawan, M. K.
Department of Veterinary Public Health and Preventive Medicine, A. B. U. Zaria.
*Corresponding Author: Email email@example.com. Mobile No.: 08069704555
Escherichia coli is a commensal organism that live as normal flora in warm- blooded animals and the serotype Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a major foodborne pathogen that inhabit the hindgut of some
animals. The major reservoir of E. coli O157:H7 are cattle and small ruminants that contaminate the environment through their faecal material although pigs have also been known to carry it. Infection to human occur through faecal oral route of transmission. This study investigated the presence of E. coli O157:H7 in the faeces of pigs. A total of 100 samples were collected, 50 each from two different piggeries in Samaru, Zaria in Kaduna State of Nigeria. The samples were analysed to isolate E. coli O157:H7 using
Rapid Latex Agglutination test Kit and Enzyme Immunoassay (RIDA(R) Quick Verotoxin/O157 Combi). The result of the study showed biochemically characterized isolation rate of E. coli as 74% in from Samaru new extension and 34.1% at Samaru hayin danyaro piggery. A 1% isolation rate of E. coli
O157:H7 from Samaru new extension using Rapid Latex Agglutination test and 0% using Enzyme Immunoassay were also obtained. In conclusion, the study has established 1% prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 at Samaru new extension piggery. It was therefore recommended that public health education be carried out by government to sensitize people rearing pigs in their neighbourhood on the need to maintain strict hygiene to minimize environmental contamination with the pathogen.
Key words: Escherichia coli, piggeries, faecal matter
005 – EFFECTS OF SINGLE SUPER PHOSPHATE AND WOOD ASH ON BIOGAS PRODUCTION USING CHICKEN DROPPINGS WITH DIGITARIA SMUTS II (WOOLY FINGER GRASS)
Authors: Musa,*1 R., Igboro1 , S.,B. E. M. Shaibu-Imodagbe1, M. I. Alfa2, and A. Ishaq3
1Department of Water Resources & Environmental Engineering,
Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria
2Department of Civil Engineering, University of Jos, Jos, Nigeria
3Department of Civil Engineering, NuhuBamalli Polytechnic, Zaria, Nigeria
E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, Tel.: 08068085039
This study was carried out to examine the catalytic effects of Single Super Phosphate and Wood ash on biogas production from co digestion of Chicken Droppings with Digitaria Smooth II. Apre designed digester was adopted and fabricated using locally available materials. The study was carried out in four identical reactors to enable variation of the catalyst combination (100gSSP/50gWoodash, 150gSSP/75gWoodash and 200gSSP/100gWoodash). The research showed that SSP and Wood ash could reduce the lag phase in anaerobic digestion.The Modified Gompertz equation was used to adequately describe the cumulative biogas production.The control had the longest lag phase 8.9 days as compared to 7.9 days with catalyst.At the end of 32 days digestion period, there was significant difference in volume of
biogas produced across the digesters from 0.0646m3 (no catalyst) to 0.1087m3 (200gSSP/100gWood ash), indicating 40.6% increment. The Modified Gompertz equation was applied to describe the cumulative
biogas generation. The estimated Kinetic Constants using linear regression and other characteristics of the four digesters were obtained. 0.0025m3, 0.0028m3, 0.0031m3, and 0.0046m3 for Biogas Production Rate and 0.0647m3, 0.0737m3, 0.0808m3 and 0.1088m3 for Biogas Production Potential. The average temperatures of the digesters recorded were 35.25 0C, 35.28 0C, 35.30 0C, and 35.40 0C respectively while the average ambient temperature observed during the study was 36 0C which were within the mesophilic range.
Keyword: Biogas, Chicken Droppings, Single Super Phosphate, Wood ash, Modified Gompertz equation
006 – THE IMPACT OF UNIVERSAL BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAMME (UBE) ON THE ENROLMENT AND RETENTION OF THE GIRL-CHILD IN PRIMARY AND JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN KUDAN LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, KADUNA STATE.
Authors: Adie, D. O., Dunmoye, A. R. and Agubamah, E.
Department of Political Science and International Studies,
Ahmadu Bello University,Zaria, NIGERIA
Email: email@example.com, GSM: 08035776220
This research studied the impact of UBE Programme towards the promotion of basic education in Nigeria, focusing on Kudan Local Government Area in Kaduna state with particular reference to the Girl-Child in terms of enrollment and retention. Data was generated from Primary and Secondary sources. Primary sources includes Questionnaires constructed and self administered among 120 respondents made up of 40 teachers and 80 parents of girl-children in 6 Primary and 4 Junior secondary schools in Kudan LGA, Oral Interview and Focused Group Discussion using cluster and purposive sampling. Secondary data includes school records from principals of the Junior Secondary Schools and the information unit of the
Local Government Area used to generate data on enrolment and retention rate of boys/girls in Primary and Junior Secondary schools over the years understudy. The data was quantitatively analyzed with the aid of
the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 2.0 0f 2010, to obtain frequency, percentage and cumulative percentage to responses to the questions presented in the questionnaire. The results revealed that the UBE Programme has not improved enrolment and retention rate of girls in Primary and Junior Secondary Schools in Kudan Local Government from 2005-09, especially in the secondary schools with an enrolment and retention ratio of 72.27% Boys and 27.73% Girls in 2005 to 73.27% Boys
and 26.73% Girls in 2009 for Primary schools. For secondary schools, data obtained from school records shows an enrolment and retention ratio of 88.1% Boys and 11.9% Girls in 2005 and 73.5% Boys and 26.5% Girls in 2009. On the question of factors responsible for low enrolment and retention of girls in schools in this Local Government, (50%) of the respondents indicated early marriage, (30%) poverty, and (20%) said ignorance concerning female education weremajor reasons for the low retention rate of girls in schools in the Local Government Area. Based on the data generated and presented, the research concluded that the Universal Basic Education Programme (UBE), has not impacted on Girls education in
Kudan Local Government Area in terms of enrollment and retention during the period under study (2005- 2009) based on the data generated and presented.
007 – DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF A TREATMENT SYSTEM FOR REDUCING SALINITY AND HEAVY METALS IN IRRIGATION WATER
Author: Adeogun, B.K*, Garba, B. and Imodagbe, M. K. E
Dept. of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.
*Correspondence to: firstname.lastname@example.org
This paper investigated the use of hydraulic ram pump on the high pressure feed side of a reverse osmosis to reduce salinity, and heavy metals such as lead, chromium and copper in irrigation water. The influent and effluent water qualities were analysed using standard methods to ascertain the performance of the treatment system. The results showed that the electrical conductivity of the saline water was reduced from 2,310 μs/cm to 178 μs/cm. Lead, chromium and copper concentrations were reduced from 0.254mg/l,
0.020mg/l and 0.380 mg/l to 0.005 mg/l, 0.01 mg/l and 0.08 mg/l, respectively. The concentrations of the effluent parameters were within the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) of the United Nations standards for irrigation water. This implies that the design and fabrication of the system should be encouraged for the application of good quality water to farmlands. This system is recommended for the nations’ rural areas irrigation farming to ensure national sustainable development.
Key words: Hydraulic ram pumps, reverse osmosis, irrigation, salinity, heavy metals, irrigation farming
008 – MEASUREMENT OF SELECTED PHYSICAL PARAMETERS AND
RADIOACTIVITY CONCENTRATION IN WASTEWATER DISCHARGED FROM SOME INDUSTRIAL AREAS IN JOS, PLATEAU STATE – NIGERIA.
Authors: Onoja1, R.A., Idoko2, E. E. Onoja3 R.O. and Kassimu4 A.A. Omale5 E.J.
1. Centre for Energy Research and Training, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria-Nigeria
2. Day Science College P. M. B. 3147, Kano-Nigeria
3. Federal Government Girls College Zaria Kaduna
4. Air Force Research & Development Centre Kaduna
5. Department of Geography A.B.U. Zaria
- Corresponding Author: e-mail: email@example.com Phone No.: +2348051348465
This research undertook an assessment of the gross alpha and beta radioactivity as well as some physical parameters of wastewater from some industrial areas in Jos, Plateau state of Nigeria. Samples were collected from the point of disposal of four industrial effluents and two drainage channels from residential areas near those industries. MPC-2000 detector was used for the gross alpha and beta analysis. The results obtained indicate gross alpha activity concentration levels ranging from 0.019±0.01 Bq/L to 66.27±0.01 Bq/L, while gross beta results are in the range of 3.01±0.01 Bq/L to 289.22±0.01 Bq/L. Both results exceeded the maximum permissible limit set by WHO (2006) which is 0.1 Bq/L for gross alpha and 1.0 Bq/L for gross beta radioactivity, except the gross alpha for the first sample location. Similarly, the several results for each of the physical parameters revealed levels of most samples that are beyond the maximum limit recommended by WHO (2006). Chances of these wastewater running into surface water highlights the potential danger posed by these industrial discharges.
Keywords: Activity Concentration, Gross Alpha, Gross Beta, Pollution, Wastewater, Industrial Effluent
009 – SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS AFFECTING ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH CONDITIONS IN RURAL AGRARIAN SOCIETY IN EBONYI STATE, NIGERIAN
Author: Akpa, E.C.
Department of Sociology
Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria
Health though the outcome of genetic and biological processes is influenced by the social and economic conditions in which we live. Inequalities in social conditions give rise to unequal and unjust health conditions for different social groups. The social, economic, and political situations that affect the health of individuals, communities, and societies are significant and therefore need to be understood in addressing environmental health issues. Social factors such as poverty, food insecurity, social exclusion
and discrimination, poor housing, unhealthy early childhood conditions and low occupational status are important determinants of most diseases, deaths and health inequalities between and within countries. Social inequalities in the levels of income, poverty, education and access to healthcare facilities are predominantly observable in agrarian societies and ought to be understood in planning intervention programmes in the rural areas. This article made contributions on this front by examining the rural
agrarian society of Ebonyi State. The article adopted the ‘desktop research’ approach as the methodology, making technical analysis of existing issues. Documents from the state health departments, publications, journals, repositories, media and agencies reports and reviews on agrarian society in Ebonyi state were used as sources of data and information. The article concluded by making suggestions on the way forward.
Key Word: Agrarian society, Determinant, Ebonyi, Environmental health, Inequalities, Social exclusion.
010 – COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF QUALITY CONSISTENCY OF SACHETPACKAGED TABLE WATER BRANDS IN NSUKKA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, ENUGU STATE, NIGERIA.
Author: Agbazue, V.E, and Okey, C.N.
Department of Pure & Industrial Chemistry,
University of Nigeria, Nsukka
Samples of sachet packaged table water (popularly known as pure water) of four brands labeled A, B, C and D, were taken weekly from their respective factories for four consecutive weeks. Each set of the samples was analysed for the following physicochemical parameters: pH, total solids, hardness, chloride and nitrate, to establish their levels of consistency and compliance with standard. The mean ranges of the results covering the four brands are as follows: pH=6.49-7.33; total solids=35.10-82.26 mg/l; hardness=14.00-26.00mg/l; chloride=31.95-33.02mg/l; nitrate =8.93 28.31mg/l. From the results obtained the comparative assessment of the overall levels of physicochemical quality consistency of the four brands can be stated as: B>A>D>C. Furthermore, all the brands complied with the World Health
Organization (WHO) standard for potable water, except for C which produced sub-standard samples that failed the tests for pH and nitrate. Regular monitoring tests of this nature help to ensure compliance with
water quality standard, while positively addressing environmental health inequalities.
Keywords: Sachet-packaged water, analysis, physicochemical, parameter, consistency, standard.
011 – ASSESSMENT OF RADIATION DOSE TO PATIENTS RECEIVING RADIOTHERAPY TREATMENT AT THE AHMADU BELLO UNIVERSITY TEACHING HOSPITAL, ZARIA – NIGERIA
Authors: Onoja1, R.A. Idoko2, E. E. Onoja3 R.O. Kassimu4 A.A. and Ogbeh, E.
1. Centre for Energy Research and Training, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria-Nigeria
2. Day Science College P. M. B. 3147, Kano-Nigeria
3. Federal Government Girls College Zaria Kaduna
4. Air Force Research & Development Centre Kaduna
5. Department of Chemistry, Faculty Sciences A.B.U Zaria
Corresponding Author: e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Phone No.: +2348051348465
Radiation therapy according to Saunders (2003) is the treatment of disease, usually cancer, by ionizing radiation in order to deliver an optimal dose of either particulate or electromagnetic radiation to a particular area of the body with minimal damage to normal tissues. Radiation doses to cancer patients from the use of teletherapy and brachytherapy equipment’s from 2006 to 2011 were assessed at the Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital (ABUTH), Zaria Nigeria. The analysed data comprised of 50 randomly selected cases of patients who were administered teletherapy treatment for various types of cancer, and another 30 randomly selected cases of patients that received brachytherapy treatment for cervical cancer. The ages of those patients varied from 4 70 years, 26 of those for teletherapy were females while 24 were males, and all the 30 cases for brachytherapy were females. The minimum dose administered was 15 Gy while the maximum dose was 66 Gy. The results showed that of all the 50 cases assessed for teletherapy, 5 of them were given the exact maximum tolerable doses for their treatment while 3 patients were administered the minimum prescribed doses, with doses to 6 patients falling within
the prescribed range. Similarly, 21 patients received doses below the prescribed range due to the peculiarity of their conditions while only 2 patients, representing 4% of the total teletherapy cases received doses slightly higher than the recommended level. In conclusion, the study reveals a 96% adherence to International Commission for Radiation Protection (ICRP) recommended standard for teletherapy procedures and 100% compliance for brachytherapy throughout the period under review.
Keywords: Radiation, Dose, Cancer, Patients, Teletherapy and Brachytherapy.
012 – EVALUATION OF CARCASS CHARACTERS OF WEANED DUTCH
RABBITS FED GARLIC (Allium sativum) AND GINGER (Zingiberofficinale)
Author: Imodagbe, M. O.1 and Imodagbe, F.E2
1Department of Biological Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna.
2Department of Veterinary Public Health and Preventive Medicine Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna.
Corresponding Email: email@example.com
An experiment was carried out to evaluate the weight gain and carcass characters of weaned Dutch rabbits fed garlic (Allium sativum) and ginger (Zingiberofficinale). Thirty six (36) rabbits were randomly assigned the dietary treatments in a complete randomized design with nine rabbits per treatment. The rabbits were fed with iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous diets where treatment 1 (control) contained neither garlic nor ginger, treatment 2 contained 0.25% garlic, treatment 3 contained 0.25% ginger and treatment 4 combined 0.25% garlic and 0.25% ginger. Experimental diets and clean drinking water were supplied ad libitum throughout the experimental period of ten weeks. At the end of the feeding trial, three rabbits per
treatment were slaughtered for carcass evaluation.Results showed that there was significant (P<0.05) differences in final liveweight, weight gain and feed conversion of the rabbit in treatments 3 and 4 relatively to the control. Weight gain and feed conversation ratio were best in treatment 3. Significant (P<0.05) differences occurred in kidney and hind part of the rabbit in treatment 3 showing the best result at 0.25% inclusion level. Other carcass characters showed no significant (P<0.05) differences and treatment
3 had a better mean weight of carcass harvested organs across the table but such means were not able to cause significant (P<0.05) differences. Means of treatment 2 with inclusion levels of garlic at 0.25% did not differ much from that of control (treatment 1). Dressing percentages of 49% were recorded in treatments 2, 3 and 4, while the control had 47.32%. From the results, it can be concluded that inclusion of 0.25% ginger (T3) in diets of rabbits and also 0.25% inclusion in garlic and ginger (T4) produced rabbits
with better weight and carcass characters.
Keywords: Dutch rabbit, weight gained carcass, ginger, garlic
013 – SITUATION ANALYSIS OF THE IMPACT OF FOREST DEGRADATION ON WOMEN: IMPLICATIONS ON CHANGING GENDER ROLES AND RELATIONS IN EBONYI STATE
Author: AKPA, E. C.
Department of Sociology Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria
Since the degree of access to and control over resources within a society play significant roles in differentiating members of a society in policy and decision making processes, peoples’ lives will be greatly enhanced by clearly understanding how men’s and women’s subsistence and experiences differ through the roles and responsibilities ascribed to them in their society and the changes brought about by environment and development processes. It is from this backdrop that a situational analysis of the socioeconomic impact of forest degradation on gender in Ebonyi State was conducted. Some agrarian communities were sampled from the three Senatorial Zones of the State with both quantitative and qualitative research instruments. Findings show that 70% of the sampled population agrees to decrease of forest resources in the study area, 39.5% believe that there is loss of important plants and herbs and 95.9% opined that men contribute to forest degradation more than women. Further analyses show a significant relationship between the impact of forest degradation and changing gender roles and relation. It is recommended that Local Governments should enforce environmental bye-laws against bush burning, lumbering of trees and these laws should also take care of preservation of reserved forests, plants and herbs.
Key Words: Gender, Forest, Degradation, Situational analysis, Ebonyi State