001 – EFFECT OF AGE ON ANTHROPOMETRIC, LUNG FUNCTION AND BLOOD PRESSURE PARAMETERS AMONG QUARRY WORKERS IN AKAMKPA L.G.A OF CROSS RIVER STATE, NIGERIA.
Author: EKWOK, I. C.
Department of Geography, Federal College of Education Obudu, Cross River State, Nigeria.
E-mail: email@example.com; GSM: +234(0)8054962746
Population increase coupled with the rise in demand for construction materials like granite and gravels have necessitated the continued growth of quarry activities in and around Akamkpa LGA. This research work was conducted to ascertain the effect of age on anthropometric, lung function and blood pressure parameters among the quarry workers of Akamkpa. Observation, experimental studies and historical methods were used. A structured questionnaire and the vitalograph chart containing the spirograms of each of the workers. A calibrated aneroid sphyngmanometer (SF 60502) was equally used. Among the test subjects, the anthropometric, lung function (Except FEVI %) and blood pressure parameters were all significantly (P<0.01) dependent on age. The reverse is the case with the control subjects where all the anthropometric lung function showed no significant when compared to age of workers, but the blood pressure parameters were all significantly (P<0.001) dependent on age. And recommended that aged persons should not be expose nor engage in prolong hard job like quarrying.
Key Words: Appraisal, Age, Anthropometric, Quarry, Effect, Workers, Akamkpa
002 – EFFECTS OF SMALL SCALE MINING ACTIVITIES ON AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION IN JEMA’A LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF KADUNA STATE NIGERIA
1Lyocks, S.W.J., 2Tanimu, J., 1Olajide, J.O., 3Lyocks, J.S. and 1Micah, N
1. Samaru College of Agriculture, Division of Agricultural Colleges, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria
2. Department of Soil Science & Land Resource Management, Federal University Wukari, Nigeria
3. Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Sociology, Faculty of Agriculture, ABU Zaria
Corresponding author’s e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org GSM: +234(0)8023548026
Small scale mining in the southern part of Kaduna State where agriculture is the main source of livelihood has in the last three decades brought employment and revenue generation but simultaneously impacted negatively on agriculture and biosphere of immediate environment. This study examined the effects of small scale tin and sapphire surface mining on land use for agricultural production in the study area. A multi-stage sampling technique was used to select 120 respondents from the mining communities. Data were obtained using structured questionnaire and guided interview with the community leaders. The results showed that about 75.8% of the respondents were involved in mining activities, and earned about N29,863 monthly while the 65% that were involved in farming earned N19,197 per month. About 96% opined that mining resulted to decreased crop production, land conflict (93%) and disputes (92%). This study confirms that about 1.8 hectares of farmland per family was lost to mining activities, resulting in destruction of the genetic soil profile, displacement of wildlife and habitat, alteration of land uses, and change in the general topography of the area. Hence a serious threat to food security and requires urgent government intervention to enforce laws controlling mining activities in the area.
Keywords: Mining, land use, land degradation, crop failure, habitat destruction.
003 – IMPLICATION OF ALTERNATIVE DOMESTIC ENERGY CONSUMPTION DURING KEROSENE SCARCITY IN CROSS RIVER STATE, NIGERIA
Author: Eno Itobo Ibiang
Cross River State College of Education, Akamkpa, Cross River State Nigeria
The study examined the alternative utilization of domestic fuels in the face of kerosene scarcity. The objective is to identify the preferred domestic fuel and it effects. Survey method was adopted in the study. A sample size of 400 households was used for the study. The procedure adopted in selecting the 400 households was multi-stage random sampling. Data was collected through a structured questionnaire and analyzed using simple percentage and multiple regression analysis. Results showed fuel-wood as the popular domestic fuel during kerosene scarcity in rural and urban areas of Cross River State but popular utilization of fuel-wood has serious consequences in the environment such as deforestation, environmental degradation and health hazards. It is suggested that energy policy of Nigeria should be reviewed to pave way for environmentally friendly domestic fuel utilization.
Keywords: Domestic energy, fuel-wood, deforestation, health hazards
004 – OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY IN A SEED PRODUCING COMPANY IN NIGERIA.
Authors: 1Ibrahim, U., 2Ibrahim, F.B., 2Igboro, S.B and 2Saulawa, S.B
1College of Agriculture, Ahmadu Bello University (ABU), Samaru, Zaria
2Department of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering ABU, Zaria. Corresponding author’s email: Ibrusman2007@yahoo.com. GSM: +234(0)8034374967
The occupational and safety provision of a seed production company in Nigeria was reviewed by means of structured questionnaires. The results of the study revealed that awareness on occupational hazards related to seed production by workers was very high (96%) which suggests that the staff have some training on safety and safety measures. Also, the incidence of occupational hazards is very low as 93% of the staff claimed to be unaware of any incident since they joined the company and 81% of those who have witnesses incidence of occupational hazards in the company rated the company’s response to such incidence as satisfactory. All the staff (100%) asserted to the availability of safety measures in the company, however only 86% of them agreed that such safety measures were adequate while 14% believe that it should be improved upon. The study revealed that adequate supervision of workers on use of protective wears, first aid boxes and fire extinguishers are carried out. Also, the provision of milk, monthly medical allowance, and free medical care has encouraged the workers to be more committed to work. The environmental audit of the company showed that the building is in good condition and the general yard sanitation is very good.
Keywords: Occupational safety, environmental inspection, seed producing company
005 – FARMERS’ PERCEPTION OF THE INTEGRATED SOIL FERTILITY MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGY IN KATSINA STATE, NIGERIA
Author: Muhammad, M.B., Halliru, I. and C.A. Mayojo
Department of Agricultural Extension and Management, Samaru College of Agriculture, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria
Corresponding author’s e-mail: email@example.com
Soils in Northern Guinea Savannah zone in Nigeria are continually been degraded as a result of continuous cultivation especially of cereal crops. They perceived soil degradation mainly by reduced yields. International Fertilizer Development Centre (IFDC) Africa implemented the International Soil Fertility Management (ISFM) Project to increase efficiency of resource use particularlyof fertilizer. Most of the farmers in the study area hardly use Improved Soil Management practices. This study therefore investigates farmers’ perception of the Integrated Soil Fertility Management technology in Danja Local Government of Katsina State. Total of sixty (60) farmers representing 20% of the pilot farmers involved in this pilot scheme were randomly selected from Danja, Tsangamawa and Kahutu villages. Structured questionnaires were used to obtain information from the respondents. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze the data. Results of the study revealed that most (82%) of the respondents were males while 95%were married. Also, majority (35%) have non-formal education. All farmers belong to one associations or the other since it is a pre-requisite for participating in the ISFM project. The farmers generally see the ISFM technology as positively impactful in their livelihood due to the observed increased yield by 95% of the respondents and improving the soil fertility (98%)by using available nutrient resources more efficiently, effectively, and sustainably than in the past.. Major constraint is the scarcity of crystallizer and lack of sufficient credit facility. The study recommends optimising advantages of group dynamics by both governmental and non-governmental agenciesto ensure input and credit availability.
Keywords: Farmers’ perception, soil fertility, integrated management technology, fertilizer
006 – THE ECONOMICS OF GAS FLARING IN IBENO, AKWA IBOM STATE, NIGERIA
Authors: 1Ita, Asuquo Ekeng and 2Affiong, Ekpenyoung Onoyom
1Department of Environmental Health Technology
2Department of Public Health Nursing
College of Health Technology Calabar, Cross-River State Nigeria
Corresponding author’s e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org
In this paper, attempt was made to establish the relationship between pollution effects occasioned by gas flaring resulting from petroleum production and its socio-economic impact on Ibeno Community in Akwa Ibom State where gas flaring has been a major part of petroleum production over the years. A survey design was adopted for the study to assess particularly the effect of gas flaring on human health and building structures. The data generated were analyzed with the aid of descriptive statistical techniques. The study revealed that gas flaring occasioned by petroleum production by Mobil Oil Company generated pollutants into the environment. These pollutants had consequential effects on human health and building structures. In monetary terms, the cost of pollution to the community was estimated to be ₦122.9 million annually and ₦1.8 billion in fifteen years period (1996 – 2010). This huge amount could have substantial economic benefits on the community if well managed. It was recommended that appropriate regulation and control measures/policies should be adopted to ensure acceptable levels of pollution.
Keywords: Gas flaring, pollution, public health, housing, economy, Ibeno.
007 – COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF BIOGAS PRODUCTION FROM DIFFERENT SOURCES OF COW DUNG
Authors: 1Adeogun, B. K., 2Nwude, M. O. and 3Muhammad, S. Y.
1Department of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering,
Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria Nigeria
2National Water Resources Institute, Mando Road Kaduna
3Deaprtment of Chemistry, IBB University, Lapai, Niger State
Corresponding author’s e-mail: email@example.com
The aim of this study was to compare and analyze the biogas production of cow dung wastes from different sources based on their feed intakes: grass only, grass and supplements, supplements only, and a mixture of cow dung based on grass and large intestine organic matter (from abattoir). The experiment was initiated with the mixture of each of the cow dung substrate and water in a slurry ratio (v/v) of 1:3 and digested for a period of 15 days each. The pH, temperature, nitrate and phosphate constituents of the substrate in the digester were measured before, during and after digestion. The biogas production was observed for each of the experiment. Cow dung substrate (supplements) produced the lowest biogas production with a cumulative volume of 0.355m3 while cow dung substrate based on grass and intestine organic matter produced the highest cumulative volume of 1.86m3. It was concluded that cow dung mixed with large intestine organic matter from abattoir should be used as substrate for biogas production on a large scale and should be encouraged for commercial production.
Keywords: Biogas, Cow dung, Substrate, Commercial production
Authors: 1Jesulowo, J. F., 2Oniye, S. J., 2Audu, P. A., 2Nock, I. H and 2Kogi, E
Department of Science Programme, Samaru College of Agriculture, Division of Agricultural Colleges, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Nigeria
Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, ABU Zaria
Corresponding Author’s e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com
This study was carried out to determine the main species of protozoan oocysts of intestinal parasites in faecal samples of dog owners’ children, children from homes without dogs (CHWD) and dogs in some selected area in Zaria of Kaduna State Nigeria. This was achieved in collaboration with ethnical clearance from the selected schools. It also determined the prevalence of protozoan oocysts in children of dog owners and children from homes without dogs in Zaria.
Keywords: Protozoan oocysts, dogs, pupils, prevalence, Zaria
009 – MODEL SOLAR BOX COOKER DESIGNED FOR RURAL HOUSEHOLD ENERGY NEEDS
Authors: 1Fumen, G.A., 1Aiyejagbara, E.F., 1Sa’id, A., 2Igboro, S.B., 3Musa, J. J and 4Philip, T. K
1Samaru College of Agriculture, Ahmadu Bello University (ABU), Zaria
2Department of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering, ABU Zaria
3Department of Agricultural and Bioresources Engineering, Federal University of Technology, Minna
4Department of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, University of Agriculture, Makurdi
Corresponding author’s e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Water heating was used to evaluate the cooking performance of a solar box cooker developed at the Samaru College of Agriculture, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria. The test was conducted for 3dys and temperature variations at the intervals of 30minutes were observed for 5hours daily. Ambient temperature (Ta), maximum heating temperature (Tmax) and the average heating temperature (Tav) were found to be important parameters for measuring the performance of the solar box cooker. The results of the study showed that the solar box cooker attained a maximum heating temperature of 82oC at 12:30 pm during the heating period, with an average heating temperature of 77oC. Available literature suggests that food cooking with solar cookers is faster between the two hours before and after the local solar noon (12:00noon) compared to the hours of early morning or late afternoon. The heat absorption rate of the heating water at each time interval was 280kj. The maximum heating temperature of 82oC attained by the solar box cooker suggests that the solar box cooker is quite effective for use as an alternative to both open-fire biomass stove and kerosene stove. It is suggested that a built up provision on the solar box cooker to enable the use of thermometer during observation of temperature variation without opening the box will produce higher heating performance above 82oC.
Keyword: Cooking, heating; Solar box cooker; Solar radiation; household energy source
010 – EFFECT OF SOLAR AND SUN DRYING ON MOISTURE REDUCTION IN GINGER (ZINGIBER OFFICINALE) UNDER DIFFERENT SIZE-REDUCTION TREATMENTS
Authors: 1Aiyejagbara, E.F., 2Fumen, G.A., 1Lyocks, S.W.J., 1Suleiman, S.M and 3Adamu, B.D
1Samaru College of Agriculture, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. Nigeria
2Department of Agricultural and Bioresources Engineering, 3Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Sociology,Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria.
Corresponding author’s e-mail: email@example.com.
Solar drying is not only a method for substituting fossil fuels using solar energy, but a technology for producing dried materials of required quality. Solar energy utilization is needed to a greater extent because of its advantageous characteristics, as an environment friendly, sustainable alternative and naturally abundant energy source which satisfies the global requirements of a sustainable development. A solar cabinet dryer was developed to compare the effect of solar drying (D1) and open-sun drying (D2) on the percentage moisture reduction from ginger under different size-reduction treatments (W, S and P). The temperature and relative humidity of the heated drying air in the solar dryer varied from 37-700c and 58-36%, with the ambient conditions at 28-39.50c and 65-46%, respectively. Under the two drying techniques, WD samples (WD1 and WD2) were not effectively dried throughout the drying experiments. The drying periods for SD2, PD1 and PD2 conform with the standard drying time range of 7 – 14 days. SD1 samples effectively dried after only 4days of drying, showing an improvement over the existing standard drying time range of 7-14 days. Comparative analysis of the solar cabinet dryer and the conventional open- sun drying showed that solar drying takes less time to dry, with superior products of clean and attractive appearance and without contamination of any sort. The developed solar cabinet dryer is recommended for ginger farmers in the ginger producing zones of the country.
Keywords: Ginger, size-reduction, dehydration, sun-drying, solar-drying, renewable energy
011 – PUBLIC HEALTH HAZARDS OF EQUIVALENT CONTINUOUS NOISE LEVELS AT INDUSTRIAL WORKPLACES IN JOS, NIGERIA
Author: Chagok, N.M.D., Gyang, B.N. and Domtau, D.L
Department of Physics, University of Jos, Nigeria
Corresponding author’s e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
The equivalent continuous noise levels of nine companies/industries in Jos-Bukuru metropolis were investigated using the Impulse Precision Sound Level Meter Type 2209 in conjunction with ⅓-Octave Filter set, Type 1616. The measurements showed that the noise was essentially broad-band, continuous and steady-state; and the equivalent continuous noise levels in all the workplaces, excepting one, were higher than the proposed 70dBA as an 8-hr time-weighted average. Sound exposure levels, daily noise doses, and time-weighted averages determined for the studied workplaces were considered high and capable of causing noise-induced hearing loss among the workers.
Keywords: Noise level, workplace, exposure risk, occupational hazard, impaired hearing.
012 – TREATMENT OF DOMESTIC WASTE WATER WITH ACTIVATED CARBON FROM LOCUST BEAN (PARKIA BIGLOBOSA) POD
Author: Adie, D.B., Sanni, M.I and Tafida, A
Department of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering,
Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria
Corresponding Author’s e-mail: email@example.com
Adsorption with activated carbon is widely used in water treatment for removal of various micro organic pollutants. The study was carried out in other to compare the effects of African Locust Bean (Parkia biglobosa) pod as compared to Bone Char as activated carbon in waste water treatment. The activated carbon was obtained from carbonized P. biglobosa pod with a temperature range from 350 to 500ºC and activated by Phosphoric acid for 12-18hrs. Turbidity removal efficiency for P. biglobosa was found to be higher than Bone char with percentage values of 70.9% and 43.6% respectively. Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) significantly reduced from 250mg/L to 6.2mg/L and 5.8mg/L for P. biglobosa and Bone char with equivalent percentages of 97.52% and 97.7% respectively. Nitrate reduction for Bone char was high as compared to P. biglobosa with values of 72.5% and 87.5% respectively. Phosphate reduction for Bone char was high as compared to Parkia biglobosa with values of 22% and 51.2% respectively. The results showed that P. biglobosa activated carbon has the potential for wastewater quality parameters improvement. This is significant since the P. biglobosa pod is treated as a waste after removing the yellowish pulp and seed and is less expensive than bones.
Keywords: Pakia biglobosa, activated carbon, adsorption, wastewater
013 – MODELING OF SPENT DRILLING FLUIDS ON OIL FIELDS IN NIGER DELTA
Author: Iselema, R.U., Adie, D.B., Okuofu, C.A and Otun J.A
Department of Water Resources & Environmental Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria,
Corresponding author’s e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
The environmental pollution hazards due to the use of drilling fluids in the oil and gas sector were studied. Grab samples of spent drilling fluids, water and soil were collected from 7 locations in the oil field when the depth of the well was 3658m, before the 3962m pay zone. Samples were analyzed to determine the concentrations of contaminants such as Barium (Ba), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium total (Cr), Copper (Cu), Iron III (Fe3+), Lead (Pb), Manganese (Mn), Vanadium (Vn) and Zinc (Zn) in the treated and untreated SDFs, water, soil, ash and sludge samples that might constitute environmental hazards, in accordance with the Department of Petroleum Resources and American Public Health Association’s guidelines and methods. The concentrations and the spatial distributions of the pollutants released to the environment were established through modeling with Ogata-Banks model equation and the material balance equations. The results of the test showed that these substances have levels above the recommended limits in the environment. These contaminants which are deleterious, toxic and hazardous, have led to large-scale human health problems and environmental degradation in the sensitive wetlands of the Oil Fields in the Niger Delta.
Keywords: Ogata Banks, material balance, Oil field, Drilling Fluids, Heavy Metals, Modeling
014 – APPRAISAL OF E-WASTE MANAGEMENT PROBLEMS IN NIGERIA
(A CASE STUDY OF SAMARU IN ZARIA)
Authors: 1Ismaila, S.M., 1Mohammad, S.J., 1Okuofu, C.A., 1Adie, D.B and 2Zikrah, A.I
1. Department of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria
2. Department of Chemical Engineering Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria
Corresponding Author: email@example.com
This work was carried out to ascertain the level of (e–waste) awareness on electronics waste and the accompanied health hazard when not properly disposed off. The study also aimed to verify the present method of storage and disposal after the electronics useful life span has been exceeded. The study was carried out through street by street site visit to identify disposal sites, storage facilities and workshop for repairs of electronics in the community and also simultaneously conducted a manual count of the quantities of e-waste found in each of the identified site. To facilitate means of data collection, questionnaires were administered and also oral interviews were conducted with the key informants. From the survey result obtained, 1,711 different e-waste items were found within the research area ranging from television set to hand set. The three sources of e-waste identified within the community were 41 repair workshops, individual households and at uncontrolled dumped site that is capable of ground water pollution. The findings from this research showed that there was 28 percent level of e-waste awareness with it associated health problems in the study area and no controlled dumped site and storage facilities were identified. It was revealed that 139 of items ranging from television set to mobile phone were kept at individual households. The repair workshops serve as temporary storage where the e-waste awaits spare parts that may never come. This work was able to establish that there is need to create e-waste awareness in the community and also highlight the dangers involved in keeping e-waste within human reach. Finally, recommendations were made on how to effectively manage e-waste in the study area.
Keywords: E-waste, dump site, pollution, awareness
015 – ASSESSMENT OF HEALTH PRACTICES AMONGST HEALTH CARE WORKERS IN CALABAR SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF CROSS RIVER STATE, NIGERIA
Authors: 1Ekpenyong, Affiong Onoyom and 2Ita, Asuquo Ekeng
1Department of Public Health Nursing; 2Department of Environmental Health
College of Health Technology, Calabar Cross-Rover State Nigeria
firstname.lastname@example.org.: GSM: +234(0)8076696468;
Ekeng_itah@yahoo.ca: GSM: +234(0)8026037994
Promotion of workers health which includes health education, maintenance and disease prevention is an accepted aim of occupational health practice. In order to promote and improve the health of workers, in the workplace, health assessment which requires routine/periodic medical examinations should be carried out by workers and families. The study focused mainly on health promotion activities undertaken by individuals. A survey design was adopted for the study. 220 health care workers consisting of nurses, doctors and community health workers who are the main officers in health promotion drawn from Federal, State and Local Government health facilities were used, specifically to assess the type of health check practices and levels of compliances. A structured questionnaire was used for the study. Data generated were analyzed with the aid of descriptive statistical techniques. Result showed that 60% of health care workers performed self conducted checks as against 40% for physician checks, more than half did not have routine medical health checks especially the doctor conducted checks. Compliances to expected frequency of selected common health checks such as Pap-smear tests and blood tests were low while testicular self examination, measurement of body weight and exercises were high. It was concluded that the level of practice regarding need for routine medical checks are low. Therefore there is a crying need for more intensive and aggressive education aimed at increasing the health seeking attitude and practices of health care workers.
Keywords: Health promotion, Health care worker, health checks.
016 – LAND DEGRADATION AND FOOD SECURITY IN EBONYI STATE, NIGERIA
Author: Akpa, E.C.
Sociology Department, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria
email@example.com www.abu.edu.ng; GSM: +234(0)8029122626
In most rural agro-based economies, people’s livelihoods are dependent on land and its resources. When such land is degraded, food security is challenged. This study was conducted to examine the nature and causes of land degradation, and the socio-economic impacts on food security in Ebonyi State. The multistage cluster sampling was used following the existing 3 senatorial zones of the state (North, Central and South). A local government was selected from each of the zones (Abakiliki from the North, Ikwo from the Central and Ohaozara from the South). Apart from survey sample, qualitative instruments (FGD, SSI and KII) were also used. It was found that the nature of land degradation in the areas were gradual caused by continuous cropping, poor farming practices, bush burning, and mining activities. It was recommended that conscious efforts on land management practices be promoted among farmers and all stakeholders involved in agricultural activities.
Keywords: Land, Degradation, Food Security, Multistage, Ebonyi
017 – A CASE STUDY OF NON-BIODEGRADABLE WASTES IN SAMARU, ZARIA
Author: Ameh V.O and Okolocha E.C
Department of Veterinary Public Health and preventive medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, PMB 1069 Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria.
Corresponding author’s email: firstname.lastname@example.org. GSM: +234 (0)8161302113
Adequate wastes characterization or classification into biodegradable and non-biodegradable forms is a requirement for effective waste management. Improperly classified waste leads to a lack of proper management, consequential health hazards and unappealing eyesores in the environment. The objectives of this study were to identify locations of different dump sites in Samaru, Zaria, to identify the different types of non-biodegradable wastes produced within the area, study how the non-biodegradable waste are managed and to evaluate the effects of these wastes on the environment. The results show that several dumpsites exist within Samaru, Zaria, most of them located within residential areas, along streets and railway lines and in school premises. The non-biodegradable wastes produced in Samaru include; polythene bags, plastic bottles, plastic containers, light bulbs, metals (milk tins, beverage cans, scraps etc). These wastes are managed mainly by incineration and recycling. Effects of these wastes include; release of CO2 into the environment through incineration, blockage of drainages and pipes which obstruct the free flow of water and cause flooding of compounds. They also serve as breeding grounds for mosquitoes, bacteria, fungi and other disease-causing organisms; create an unhygienic and foul-smelling environment. Animals can ingest these wastes which can cause GIT obstruction and rumen impaction. Some of these wastes contain toxic substances (e.g. fluorescent bulbs contain mercury, a chemical that is harmful to humans, animals and ecological health). In conclusion, the study found that several dumpsites are not properly located in Samaru, Zaria and that the residents of Samaru dump wastes indiscriminately. It was also observed that waste management is poor in this area and that dumpsites create an unhygienic and foul-smelling environment which can lead to spread of several diseases. Appropriate measures from regulatory agencies and individuals concerned were suggested.
Keywords: Waste, pollution, biodegradable, non-biodegradable, environment
018 – A CASE STUDY ON CURRENT STATUS OF SOME PLANT SPECIES OF ANAMBRA STATE
Author: Ukpaka, C. G
Department of Biological Sciences, Anambra State University, Uli, Anambra State, Nigeria. Email: email@example.com.
Many decades ago were characterized by low human and animal populations, low technological advancement, low pollutant concentrations, and low incidence of natural disasters. Hence man did care much to protect trees and other plant resources. Presently, with the above indices at their watershed, the need for developing countries especially Nigeria, to tenaciously safeguard floral resources becomes absolutely imperative. To drive this urgency home, the United Nations has also put in place “compensation” for Nations that can preserve at least 25% of their floral heritage (forests particularly). This is one area in which Anambra State has not made much progress. If a steady state between the biotic and abiotic environment must be maintained, man must first of all establish mutual homeostasis between himself and plants.
Keywords: Trees, Floral resources, abuse and neglect, steady state
019 – EFFECT OF COMPOSTING ON TEMPERATURES AND THE TOTAL PLATE COUNT OF ANIMAL AND MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTES
Authors: Yahaya, O., Yakubu, S.E., Whong, C.M.Z and Ado, S.A
Department of Microbiology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria.
Corresponding author’s e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org;
GSM: +234(0)8050622272; +234(0)8065308507)
Composting is a process of controlled biological decomposition of biodegradable materials under managed conditions that are predominantly aerobic and allow the development of thermophilic temperatures as a result of heat produced biologically. The open pile and the windrow methods were used in composting cow, poultry and municipal solid waste for twelve (12) weeks. The total plate count t and temperature were determined during composting and in the finished products. The results showed a steady weekly decline which stabilizes at week 11 and 12 with 6 and 8 having counts greater than 5.0cfu-g (log 10) in the cow waste composted. The mean temperatures of cow waste and poultry waste peaked at 43-7oC and 43.9oC respectively while municipal solid waste was 44.3oC. The results showed no significant differences among the various waste composted (P> 0.05; 0.923). The final compost quality met the recommended standard by the European Union for finished compost. Large scale, wide spread and further researches are highly recommended.
Keywords: Solid waste, animal and municipal, composting, plate count, temperature