001 – ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION AND CHANGING GENDER ROLES IN EBONYI STATE, NIGERIA
Author: Akpa, Eugenia Chika
Department of Sociology, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Nigeria
Abstract: Climate change is increasingly being recognized as a global crisis, but responses to it have so far been overly focused on scientific and economic solutions, rather than on the significant human and gender dimensions. There is need to place people at the center of climate change responses, paying particular attention to the challenges and opportunities that climate change presents in the struggle for gender equality particularly in the rural areas. An empirical research was conducted using both quantitative and qualitative methods to find, out among other environmental issues, how the degradation of the environmental resource base (land, forest and water) affect gender roles and relations in Agrarian communities of Ebonyi State. It was found that the gradual nature of environmental degradation in the area has direct impact on the people’s sources of livelihoods and indirectly explains changing gender roles and relations.
Keywords: Climate change, global crisis, gender dimensions, livelihood pattern, environmental degradation
002– IMPROVING THE PRODUCTIVITY OF WOMEN FARMERS AS A PANACEA FOR POVERTY ALLEVIATION IN KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA
Author: Damisa, M. A and Samndi, R. A
Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Sociology
National Agricultural Extension and Liaison Services, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. Corresponding e-mail: email@example.com
Abstract: The role of women in feeding the household can never be overemphasized. Poverty alleviation among women is therefore paramount in household development. Improving the women farmer productivity is therefore a means of improving their income and hence alleviating poverty among them. The study was conducted in Kaduna State. Random sampling was employed in selecting a hundred and sixty women farmer respondents for the study. Data were collected from the 2011 cropping season. The data collected included production and demographic characteristics of the respondents. It was found that farmer productivity influenced their poverty status. On the average, the women farmers were able to obtain just over 55% of optimal output implying that, in the short-run, there is the possibility of increasing technical efficiency of the women farmers in food crop production in the study area by 45% if the women farmers would adopt the technology and production techniques currently used by the most efficient farmers. 78% of random variation in the output of the women farmers was due to their inefficiency. Poor education, large dependency ratio were some of the sources of inefficiencies. This coupled with inadequate utilization of inputs forced the women farmers to operate at the irrational stage 2 of the production function. It was recommended that an enabling environment that will make inputs readily available to farmers timely be created.
Keywords: Women, Productivity, Poverty, Farmer, Kaduna State.
003 – THE ROLE OF NIGERIAN WOMEN AGRICULTURAL CO-OPERATIVES
IN FOOD SECURITY
Author: Yakubu, L. L and Atala, T. K
Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Sociology,
Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria Nigeria
Abstract: The study examined the role of women in agricultural cooperatives in food security in Kauru Local Government Area of Kaduna State. Data for the study were derived from two purposively selected communities, they are Kauru and Kono. Forty respondents were randomly selected from each of the two communities giving a total of 80 women. Tools for the analyses were descriptive statistics to identify socio-economic characteristics of co-operators, identify benefits derived for participation and constraints in participation. Multiple regression Model was used to determine factors influencing women participation in agricultural cooperative societies. The results show that a majority of respondents (77.6%) were between 30 and 49 years and married (77.5%). About (17.1%) had secondary school level education while (7.5 %) had tertiary education. About (40%) were primarily involved in farming. All of the women interviewed were small scale farmers having less than 10ha of farm lands. Major benefits derived by members include access to credit (31.3%), loan and fertilizer (18%). Poverty (22%) and poor cooperative management (22.6%) were found to be the major constraints militating against women participation in cooperatives. Factors that influenced women participation in co-operatives were age and credit, these were significant at .01 level of probability. The study established a high potential for enhancing economic growth in co- operatives in spite of the problems faced by the women. Recommendations were made.
Keywords: Women agricultural cooperatives, food security, Kaduna, Nigeria
004 – CLIMATE CHANGE RISK MANAGEMENT CAPACITY OF NIGERIAN FARMERS
Author: Lyocks, S.W.J., Olajide, J.O., Tanimu, J and Ayo, R.G
Samaru College of Agriculture, Division of Agricultural Colleges
Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria Nigeria
Corresponding e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; +234 (0) 802 354 8026
Abstract: Climate is the primary important factor for agricultural productivity. Climate Change and variability is a major risk for agricultural production, and is bringing with it alterations in climatic risks patterns. The impact of climate change has potential to undermine development achievements and threaten the food security of millions of people, especially in Nigeria where more than 70% of rural farmers are dependent on rain-fed agriculture for their livelihood. Changes in rainfall pattern, temperature, relative humidity, and soil fertility are the key climate risks faced by Nigerian farmers who must be supported in preparing themselves for the changing situations and taking the steps that will improve their ability to protect their livelihoods. Awareness raising, capacity-building processes and risk management will assist policymakers in assessing the effectiveness of different types of risk protection tools. This paper provides a rigorous, yet accessible, description of risk and risk management tools and strategies that can be adopted to cope with varying weather conditions with an overall aim of enhancing food security.
Keywords: Climate change, agricultural risk, weather forecast, agricultural production insurance and risk management.
005 – WATER RESOURCE CONSERVATION USING EMITTER-LESS DRIP IRRIGATION FOR SMALL-SCALE FARMERS
Author: Shehu, M. A and Shaibu-Imodagbe, E. M
Samaru College of Agriculture, Division of Agricultural Colleges,
Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Nigeria
Corresponding e-mail: email@example.com; +2340740445565
Abstract: Water is a finite resource already stressed by the demands of today’s global population, irrigated agriculture inclusive. A gravity flow, emitter-less, drip irrigation system was developed from locally available plumbing materials. The manifold lines and lateral lines were set on slopes of 1.5% and 2% respectively. Emitting holes, through which water passes directly to the soil, were drilled at 30cm interval in the lateral lines. Water was passed from an elevated tank, through a pipe filled with sand (sand- damper) before reaching the manifold and the lateral. Preliminary tests were conducted to determine design parameters, grading characteristics of the sand-damper and appropriate diameters of the drilled emitting holes. Results of the tests indicated that at an average operating head of 1.65m, an average flow rate of 1.66 liters/hr was obtained from 1.5mm diameter emitting holes drilled in the first one third length and 1mm diameter emitting holes drilled in the remaining two third lengths of each lateral lines on a layout covering an area of 11.82m2. The system can be modified to cover different areas by varying the texture of sand-damper, the diameters of lateral & manifold pipes, emitting holes diameters and the operating head of water. The total cost of the system was N18, 000:00 (Eighteen thousand naira NG).
Keywords: Sand-damper, emitting hole diameter, flow rate,
006 – GROWTH AND BIOMASS PRODUCTION ASSESSMENT OF SOME HERBACEOUS LEGUMES FOR SOIL CONSERVATION IN NIGERIA
Authors: 1Tanimu, J., 1Lyocks, S.W.J and 2Tanimu, Y
1 Samaru College of Agriculture, Division of Agricultural Colleges,
Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria.
2 Department of Biological Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria.
Corresponding e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Tel:+2348037039756
Abstract: This experiment was conducted at the Institute for Agricultural Research Farm, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria (Latitude 11o 11” N and Longitude 7o 38” E), located in the northern guinea savanna of Nigeria. The objective of the study is to assess the performance of seventeen herbaceous legumes using their rate of growth as a ground cover against erosion, weed suppression and large biomass production for incorporation into the soil to sustain the fertility and conserve the soil and to identify which of them will be fitted for short fallow or medium fallow. The treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design, with four replications. The results revealed that, Mucuna pruriens (white), Mucuna pruriens (black) and Crotalaria ochroleuca were better significantly (P < 0.05) as short fallow (2-3 months) because of their rapid growth to cover the ground and high biomass production (3428.7, 3304.0 and 2822.7 kg ha-1 dry matter yield respectively), while Crotalaria ochroleuca, Laplap purpureus and Cajanus cajan
Keywords: herbaceous legumes, soil fertility, soil productivity, sustainability, northern Nigeria
007 – REVIEW OF PUBLIC HEALTH IMPLICATIONS OF HIV/AIDS -RELATED STIGMA AND ASSOCIATED DISCRIMINATION
Author: 1Giegbefumwen, O. A and 2Okolocha, E. C
1Hope for the Unborn Child Foundation, 198 Sapele Road, Benin City, Nigeria 2Department of Veterinary Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. Corresponding author’s e-mail: email@example.com
Abstract: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) remain a major public health problem in Nigeria and the world at large. A significant challenge to the success of achieving universal access to HIV prevention, treatment, care and support is HIV-AIDS stigma and associated discrimination. AIDS-related stigma and discrimination refer to the prejudice, negative attitudes, abuse and maltreatment directed at people living with HIV and AIDS. The consequences of the stigma and discrimination include being shunned by family, peers and the wider community, poor treatment in healthcare and education settings, an erosion of rights, psychological damage, and a negative effect on the success of HIV testing and treatment. The stigma and discrimination will continue to exist so long as society as a whole has a poor understanding of HIV and AIDS; and the pain and suffering caused by negative attitudes and discriminatory practices. The presence of treatment can make this task easier. Where there is the opportunity to live a fulfilling and long life with HIV, people are less afraid of AIDS; they are more willing to be tested for HIV, to disclose their status, and to seek care if necessary. The task is to confront the fear-based messages and biased social attitudes, in order to reduce the discrimination and stigma directed at people living with HIV and AIDS.
Keywords: HIV/AIDS, Stigmatization, discrimination, Nigeria
008- PYROLYSIS FOR SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT AND BIOFUEL PRODUCTION
Authors: 1Mohammad, Y. S., 2Shaibu-Imodagbe, E. M and 3Okuofu, C. A
1Chemistry Department, IBB University, Lapai, Niger State, Nigeria
2Samaru College of Agriculture, Division of Agricultural Colleges, ABU Zaria
3Department of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering, ABU. Zaria.
Abstract: Solid wastes, agricultural waste (biomass) inclusive are generated daily in the course of human activities. Their management poses serious challenges to sustainable environmental management. These wastes, however, hold promise in the generation of biofuels through a thermal degradation process of pyrolysis especially fast (flash) pyrolysis. By this process, products composition include solid components (bio-char), liquid components (bio-oil) and gaseous components (syngas) with liquid products making up over 60%, though actual product distribution depends on operating conditions such as temperature, heating rate, biomass composition. These can be formulated to make the biofuel to be used in internal combustion engines. Unlike conventional fossil fuel, utilization of bio-fuel from pyrolysis of biomass does not contribute to carbon dioxide (green house gas) emission into the atmosphere. Therefore, biomass energy is an emerging alternative to the depleting fossil fuels which are great source of greenhouse gases and are non-renewable. This paper highlights the prospects of pyrolysis of solid wastes (biomass) as a source of energy and other valuables thus constituting a valuable and additional option in solid waste management.
Keywords: Pyrolysis, agricultural wastes, bio-fuel, biomass
009 – RAINFALL VARIABILITY AND AGRICULTURAL DROUGHT
AT SAMARU, NORTHERN NIGERIA
Authors: 1Idris, U. D., 1Muhammed, F. I., 2Yamusa, A. M and 3Bashir, M
1College of Agricultural, Ahmadu Bello University (ABU) Zaria
2Department of Soil Science, Institute for Agricultural Research, ABU Zaria
3Department of Agricultural Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria
Corresponding author’s e- mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; +234 802 525 9761
Abstract: Rain-fed agriculture is the most weather dependent of all human activities in Nigeria. This paper outlines implications of the reduced and erratic rainfall pattern to agricultural productivity and, suggests science-based mitigation and adaptation strategies based on rainfall prediction. There are various methods for predicting the occurrence of dry spells, all based on the statistical processing of rainfall event in the past. The more simple methods identifies the occurrence of dry spells of a certain length ( 5 days, 10 days) over a certain period (one or two months or more) at the start of the rainy season and statistically assess the chance that such dry spell would materialize. Forty-nine years of daily rainfall data were collected from IAR Meteorological data pool and thirty-five years data were processed using two programmes VISUAL-BASIC.NET and INSTAT+. The probabilities of rainfall occurrences at different levels were determined which are represented as P0, P1, and P2 at zero, first and second orders of Markov chain. The rainfall data were analyzed for weekly, monthly, yearly rainfall averages and rainy days. The concept of “onset of effective monsoon and dry spells” was adopted in the present study. This information regarding the period of occurrence of dry spells in a particular location is valuable in selecting crops and their varieties to obtain the required level of drought tolerance. Prior knowledge of dry spells also helps in planning for the protective irrigations at appropriate times. From this information based on the knowledge of mean date of wet and dry spells at any location, the intercultural operations like hoeing, weeding, spraying, fertilizer application etc. can be well planned in advance.
Keywords: drought, rainfall, variability, prediction, mitigation
010 – HAZARD ANALYSIS AND CRITICAL CONTROL POINTS OF MILK AND MILK PRODUCT (YOGHURT) IN A DAIRY FARM IN ZARIA
Authors: Ilozue, C. I., Bello, M and Lawan, M. K
Department of Veterinary Public Health and Preventive Medicine,
Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Nigeria
*Corresponding author’s e-mail: email@example.com +234 7039075585
Abstract: Yoghurt is a common milk product consumed in Zaria and its environs. The product can be contaminated with zoonotic pathogens during processing and packaging. This study was conducted in a Dairy Farm in Zaria to analyze the possible points of milk and milk product contamination using the HACCP template. A total of 80 samples were collected of which 30 were swab samples that included 10 samples each, before and after cleaning the udder of the cows and 10 swab samples from the milking bucket. The remaining samples were, 30 from fresh milk, 10 from processing units and 10 from the finished product (yoghurt). The results showed that swab samples before cleaning the udder had a mean total aerobic plate count of 7.1 ± 0.2 Log10 CFU/cm2, while the value after cleaning was 6.9 ± 0.1 Log10 CFU/cm2. The swab samples from the milking bucket had lower contamination with total aerobic count of 6.4 ± 0.1Log10 CFU/cm2. The milk from external sources (Fulani milk) had the highest microbial contamination with total aerobic count of 3.9 ± 0.1 Log10 CFU/ml while the pasteurized milk had the lowest microbial contamination, with a total aerobic of 2.2 ± 0.2 Log10 CFU/ml. An increased microbial load was observed following analysis of the yoghurt, with total aerobic plate count of 2.7 ± 0.1 Log10 CFU/ml. It was concluded that there is need to improve personal and environmental hygienic practices as while as the packaging procedure in the dairy farm.
Keywords: HACCP, Milk, Yoghurt, Aerobic plate counts, CMT
011 – SERO-PREVALENCE OF HIV AMONG STUDENTS PRESENTING WITH SIGNS OF STI AT THE UNIVERSITY HEALTH SERVICES, AHMADU BELLO UNIVERSITY MAIN CAMPUS, ZARIA, NIGERIA
Authors: 1Aminu, M., Okpe, E.S, 2Musa, S.K and 2Usman, M A
1Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria- Nigeria
2University Health Services, Ahmadu Bello University, Main Campus, Zaria, Nigeria
Corresponding author’s e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org ; +234 (0)8033287031
Abstract: Individuals who are infected with sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are at least two to five times more likely than uninfected individuals to acquire human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection if they are exposed to the virus through sexual contact. The study was undertaken to determine the sero-prevalence of HIV among students presenting with signs of STIs at the University Health Services, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria in other to increase the knowledge of the relationship between HIV and other STIs in the study area where there is no published data. A total of 200 blood samples were collected and screened for HIV using the rapid immunochromatographic test between July and August 2012. Out of the 200 samples screened, 3 samples were reactive to HIV giving a sero-prevalence of 1.5%. The highest prevalence of 3.0% was recorded among students in age group 20 – 24 years old. The virus was detected only among female students with a prevalence rate of 2.2% (3/137) and among only those who presented with signs of Hepatitis B infection (3.1%: 3/98). The virus was not detected among those who presented with signs of syphilis, hepatitis C virus, and urinary tract infections. Voluntary counselling and screening of STI patients for HIV, heightened awareness on the risk factors and prevention and treatment of other STI will help to reduce the spread of HIV infection.
Keywords: Sero-prevalence, HIV, STIs, University students, Zaria, Nigeria
012 – PARASITIC NEMATODES OF MAIZE IN FARMS AT OBA, IDEMILI-SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF ANAMBRA STATE NIGERIA
Author: Obuezie, C. B and Ikpeze, O. O
Department of Parasitology and Entomology,
Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria
Correspondence: email@example.com; +234 (0)803 583 8255
Abstract: Soil-inhabiting plant-parasitic nematodes of maize crops were investigated in maize farms in 9 communities at Oba, Idemili South Local Government Area of Anambra State Nigeria. About 59.2% of the maize farms were positive for parasitic nematodes. Farms at Urueze and Umueze recorded the highest with 11.1% each, followed by Umuogali, Okuzu and Aboji (7.4% each). The remaining 5 communities contributed 3.7% each of the total nematode collected. Percentage composition of nematodes from soil samples were Pratylenchus species (25.2%), Helicotylenchus species (24.0%), Meloidogyne species (20.3%), Longidorus species (19.0%), Xiphinema species (6.4%), and Heterodera species (5.1%). Similarly, those recovered from maize roots were Pratylenchus species (30.8%), Meloidogyne species (28.2%), Heterodera species (17.9%), Helicotylenchus species (12.8%), and Longidorus species (10.3%). Xiphinema species was not observed in maize roots. Current intensification of maize production by women in Oba may result to a rise in plant parasitic nematode (PPN) population in infested farmlands. The situation will be worsened by scarcity of farmland because of the prevailing land-tenure system where women, due to gender discrimination in land matters, are restricted to cultivating mixed crops only on small parcels of designated family land. Nematode damage is doubtless an important factor in quality reduction and yield loss in standing maize crops, and may impact heavily on the productivity and means of livelihood of the women farmers. Further study is required on the socio-economic importance of nematodes of maize and other food crops cultivated by women farmers in Oba in particular and Anambra State in general.
Keywords: Plant parasitic nematodes, maize, women farmers, livelihood patterns, Oba, Nigeria
013 – RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF CAUSAL RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN
CLIMATE VARIABILITY AND CROP PRODUCTION IN NIGERIA
Authors: Oyinbo, O., Adegboye, G.A and Sulaiman, R
Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Sociology,
Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria
Corresponding author’s e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract: This study was carried out to examine the causal relationship between climate variability and crop production in Nigeria using time series data covering 1970 to 2008. The data utilized in the study were obtained from various publications of the Central Bank of Nigeria and the Nigerian Meteorological Agency. The data include data on rainfall variability as proxy for climate variability and index of crop production as proxy for crop production. Augmented Dickey Fuller (ADF) test, Vector Autoregression (VAR) lag order selection test and granger causality test were employed in the data analysis. The F statistic of 19.57 and 27.48 from the granger causality test were significant at 1% probability respectively and the results indicated a bidirectional relationship between climate variability and crop production in Nigeria. This implies that variability of climate was significant in influencing crop production and the activities of crop production were significant in influencing the variability of climate over the data period of the study. It is recommended as a matter of urgency that agricultural intensification should be advocated to stem down agriculture related green house gas emissions and farmers should be properly sensitized on coping strategies for adapting to climate variability so as to ensure sustainable crop production in line with the agricultural transformation agenda of Nigeria.
Keywords: Climate variability, Rainfall, Granger causality, Crop production
014 – INDIGENOUS FARMERS’ PERCEPTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE IN ZANGO KATAF LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA
Authors: 1Zonkwa, K., 2Okafor, C. C and 3Nduka, I. C
1Department of Geography, Federal College of Education, Zaria.
2Department of Water Resources & Environmental Engineering,
Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria.
3Department of Geography, Federal University Lokoja
Corresponding author: E-mail: email@example.com.
Abstract: The ability of farmers in Zangon Kataf Local Government Area of Kaduna State to perceive and detect climate change and its consequences is the subject of this study. In spite of the efforts that have been made towards mitigating the effects of climate change, research and policies directed towards the locality, the indigenous knowledge and perception are still highly needed. This research is focused on the perception of the local farmers about their local environment. Structured Questionnaires were used to obtain relevant information for the research. 70% of the respondents (farmers) strongly agreed that the local environment is changing. Only 66.2% are of the opinion that the climate is also changing. The survey revealed that over 57% and 52% of farmers believe temperatures have been increasing while precipitation has been declining respectively. Over 48% of the farmers also believe that the changing climate is also for the environmental problems that are affecting their agricultural practices. There is need to implement proper adaptation strategies, and as such assistance and incentives will be needed to enable the farmers cope with the effects of the changing climate.
Keywords: Climate change, Perception, Zangon Kataf
015 – THE USE OF INSECTICIDE TREATED NETS AMONG CHILDREN IN IDAH METROPOLIS, KOGI STATE, NIGERIA
Author: 1Yahaya, O., 2Tijjani, M. B and 1Imolegbemi, O. C
1Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Idah, Kogi State
2Department of Microbiology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria
*Corresponding author’s e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract: The prevalence of malaria parasitaemia among children using insecticide treated net was investigated in Idah metropolis for two malaria transmission seasons. In each survey questionnaires were administered on previous parity history and malaria parasitaemia were determined. A total of 300 children between the ages of 4-12 years were enrolled in general hospital Idah. A total of 194 (65%) uses ITN net and out of these number 24 (12%) had microscopic parasitaemia. There were more positive cases among the non users of ITN showing that ITN are important tools for eliminating malaria infection in our society.
Keywords: Malaria, pregnant, parasitaemia, ITN.
016 – PARASITOLOGICAL QUALITIES OF WATER FROM WELLS LOCATED NEAR MUNICIPAL WASTE DUMP SITES IN PARTS OF ZARIA, NIGERIA.
Author: Yahaya, O., Umoh, V.J., Ameh, J.B. and Tijjani, M.B
Department of Microbiology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.
*Corresponding author’s e-mail: email@example.com
Abstract: Billions of people on a global scale lack potable drinking water, increasing their vulnerability to diarrhoeal and parasitic diseases. A total of 186 well water, soil from dump sites and liquid waste close to sampling well were obtained from parts of Zaria. Using the concentration sedimentation techniques the samples were centrifuged at 500rpm for 5 minutes and examined microscopically. A total of 41(32%) samples contained helminthes eggs/ova were counted out of 128 well water samples tested. The results showed a significant difference between the wet and dry season. Adequate treatment of well water as well as public health education is highly recommended.
Keywords: Health, Helminthes, infection, municipal solid waste, well water.
017 – EFFECTS OF CRUDE EXTRACTS OF ARTEMISIA ANNUA, ALOE VERA, AND MORINGA OLEIFERA SEED ON EXPERIMENTAL CALLOSOBRUCHUS SUBINNOTATUS INFESTATION OF BAMBARA NUTS
Author : 1Abdullahi, J., 2Mohammed, F. I., 2Sadiq, I. A. and 2Magaji, N
1Federal Ministry of Labour and Productivity, Abuja
2Samaru College of Agriculture Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria.
Abstract: The effect of the plant products Artemisia annua crude aqueous extract, Aloe vera gel and oil of Moringa oleifera on the mortality of C. subinnotatus at three levels of application 2 ml/kg, 4 ml/kg and 8 ml/kg were investigated. The treatments were compared with Actellic 2% dust at 10 g/kg and Azadirachta indica seed oil at 2 ml/kg as standards and an untreated control. The bioactivity of the plant products was studied under prevailing laboratory conditions for a period of two years. The design of the experiment was completely randomized design with three replicates. Data was analyzed using Microsoft Excel 2003 and SPSS 13.0. The plant oil from M. oleifera at all levels of application achieved 100% mortality of the bruchid after 24h of application and compared favourably to the synthetic insecticidal dust and neem seed oil at 5% level of significance (single factor ANOVA and SNK). The mode of action of the plant product demonstrated contact, repellent and fumigant toxicities against the bruchid. Treatment with A. vera at the rate of 8 ml/kg compared favourably to the M. oleifera and standard treatments from 24h in the second trial. It showed positive fumigant and contact toxicities but had no repellent effect against the bruchid. All treatments demonstrated some biological activity against the bruchid and can be used as a cheap, readily available and environmentally friendly alternative biopesticide.
Keywords: Phytotoxicity, neem seed oil, Moringa seed oil, Aloe vera oil and gel, bruchids
018 – EVALUATION OF YIELD AND QUALITY OF BIOGAS PRODUCED FROM COW AND PIG DUNGS
Authors: 1Fumen, G. A., 2Igboro, S. B., 1Aiyejagbara, E. F and 3Musa, J. J
1Department of Agricultural and Bio-environmental Engineering Technology
Samaru College of Agriculture, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria
2Department of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering, ABU Zaria.
3Department of Agricultural and Bio-resources Engineering,
Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria.
Abstract: Biogas yield and quality from cow and pig dung were evaluated. Two metal drums of capacity 200lt were used as biodigesters for the study. Slurry samples of mixture ratios of 1:1(80kg of cow dung to 80lt of water ) and 1:2(40kg of pig dung to 80lt of water) for the cow-dung biodigester and the pig-dung biodigester, respectively. The biodigesters were maintained within the mesophillic temperature range (25-40oc), at a retention period of 10days. The digesters were painted black to enhance effective surface absorption of solar radiation during the day, with occasional shaking of the digesters to prevent the formation of scum. Biogas yields from pig dung were higher, with a mean daily yield of 0.03m3 than those from cow dung, which had a mean daily yield of 0.02m3. Combustibility and flame characteristics of biogas samples produced from the two biomass sources were monitored. Gas samples from the pig dung ignited readily with characteristic clear blue and stable flames. Gas samples from cow dung were readily ignited, but the flames exhibited dull blue characteristic. Clear blue and stable flames indicated biogas with high methane content (> 50%) and high thermal energy content. Pig dung therefore was proven to be a better alternative source for rural household energy needs, where poultry waste and other methane-rich biogas yielding biomass are lacking. The use of water cylinders with inverted floating cylinders as gas holder helped to clean the biogas produced by removing carbon dioxide, water vapour, hydrogen sulphide and other incombustible gaseous compounds.
Keywords: Biogas; Yield and combustion; Cow dung; Pig dung; Evaluation
019 – ASSESSMENT OF E-WASTE SMALL SCALE ENTERPRISE AS MEANS OF SUSTAINABLE LIVELIHOOD IN NIGERIA
Authors: 1Ibrahim, F.B., 1Okuofu, C.A., 1Adie, D.B and 2Giwa, A
1Department of Water Resources & Environmental Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria
2Department of Textile Science & Technology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria.
Rapid changes in the technology of electronics (CDs, software, MP3 etc), their falling prices, and the equally rapid obsolescence of the devices have resulted in a fast-growing accumulation of electronic wastes (e-waste) around the globe. Hence, an entirely new economic sector is evolving around the trade, repair and recovery of materials from redundant electronic devices; and this has opened up a new source of livelihood for urban settlers in Nigeria. This study is directed at evaluating the various types of electronic wastes found with electronics repairers/ re-furbishers and with collectors of e-waste scraps in some parts of the country. The study also examines the economic viability of e-waste enterprise in Nigeria. The investigation was carried out through the administration of structured questionnaires and by conducting key informant interviews with some electronics repairers and e-waste scrap dealers in Lagos, Abuja and Kaduna. The results of the study show that electronics repairers earn between N27,000 to N45,000 every month, the lower cadre e-waste collectors (popularly referred to as ‘mallams’) earn an average of N30,000 per month while the e-waste merchants or high cadre e-waste collectors make an average net profit of as much as N100,000.00 per month. The study also revealed that the e-waste business is not only profitable but also comparable to other urban livelihood supports and will go a long way in reducing poverty level among the urban settlers in Nigeria, who engage in the enterprise.
Keywords: e-waste, electronics repairers, e-waste collectors, scrap dealers, livelihood.
020 – ASSESSMENT OF CARDIORESPIRATORY PARAMETERS AMONG THE QUARRY WORKERS IN SABON GARI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF KADUNA STATE
Authors: 1Aliyu, M., 2Ibrahim, B.G, 2Tanko, Y., 2Muhammed, A and 2Amadu, L 1Department of Physical and Health Education, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria
2Department of Human Physiology, 5Department of Community Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria
*Corresponding author firstname.lastname@example.org: +2348036294142
This study was carried out to assess the cardiorespiratory effect of quarrying activities on worker’s health in Sabon Gari Local Government Area of Kaduna state, Nigeria. A sample size of 38 was used for the study as test group while 60 persons in the non-occupational sites were selected and used as comparison group making a total of 98 subjects.. Cross sectional study was conducted in the stone crushing site. The mean lung (ventilatory function indices FCV, FEV, and peak flow were significantly (p<0.05) lower in the test subjects compared with the comparison group. No significant difference was noted in the value of FEV%. (FVC: 4.01± 0.1 (comparison group), 3.54±0.1 (Test); FEV1: 2.90± 0.1 (comparison group), 2.34± 0.1 (Test) and Peak flow: 387.13± 13 (comparison group), 323.66± 14 (Test). The mean value of systolic blood pressure between the test and the comparison group is significant, 126.58± 3.0 and 119.50± 1.3 respectively. There was also a significant difference in mean of the diastolic blood pressure between the test and comparison group, 82.11± 1.7 and 78.3± 1.0 respectively (p< 0.05). The recommendations proffered include the need for safety consciousness and routine inspection and effective monitoring of quarrying activities by the regulatory agencies and appropriate sanctions meted to defaulters.
Keywords: Quarrying, Cardiorespiratory, Inhalation, Hazard, Parameter
021 – ENERGY CONSERVATION MEASURES FOR THE TEXTILE AND ALLIED INDUSTRIES IN NIGERIA
Authors: 1Giwa, A. and 2Muhammed, U. S 1Department of Textile Science and Technology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria
2Petrochemical and Allied Division, National Research Institute for Chemical Technology, Basawa, Zaria, Nigeria.
Corresponding author: email@example.com; +2348037033052
The textile industry has been an important segment of the Nigerian economy, accounting for about 15% of output and 37% of employment in manufacturing at its peak in 1994. Thus, the industry has an important economic development role in Nigeria as both an employment and output generator. However, recent events in the last two decades present substantial challenges for the industry. Today, there are less than 25 textile manufacturing companies in the country. This represents an 80% reduction from the 124 companies that were in existence in 1994. Since Nigeria lacks sufficient self-produced energy, increasing energy efficiency and energy savings are therefore crucial and essential to the Nigeria textile manufacture and market. This study summarizes energy-saving measures for energy users in the Textile industry, in addition, it identifies the areas in the textile firm where energy can be saved and also provide an energy efficiency baseline for adoption.
Keyword: Nigeria, textile, industry, energy, and efficiency
022 – ASSESSMENT OF MILK PROCESSING FACILITIES FOR THE PRESENCE OF LISTERIA SPECIES AND LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES
Authors: Yakubu, S. E., Ayeye, D.T and Okojokwu, O. J
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria
Corresponding Author’ e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
This study was designed to determine the occurrence of Listeria species and Listeria monocytogenes in three yoghurt production facilities in Kaduna metropolis, Nigeria. A total of 156 samples were collected from processing environment (floor drains biofilms, floors, walls and tables), processing equipment (fermentation tanks) and wastewaters. Fifty-four (54) samples were collected from each factory before and during production. Listeria species were assessed using Listeria selective agar while speciation of the isolates was done using Microgen Listeria ID kit. The Listeria count, before and during production, were done and expressed as log10mean ± SEM cfu/ml. Before production, the highest count was observed in factory A (5.11 ± 0.32) and lowest in factory C (3.60 ± 0.30). During production, Listeria count was highest in factory B (5.68 ± 0.53) and least in factory C (3.49 ± 0.12). No significant difference (p > 0.05) in the counts obtained before and during production in each of the three factories. Listeria species were detected in 6 (11.54%) of samples from factory A and 12 (23.08) were found in factory B. No Listeria was detected in samples from factory C. Listeria monocytogenes 4 (33.3%) was detected in samples from factory B and 8 (66.7%) of the Listeria species were Listeria grayi. In factory A, 4 (66.7%) of the Listeria species were Listeria grayi while 2 (33.3%) were Listeria ivanovii. The results of this study demonstrate possible risk of contamination of yoghurt produced by these factories owing to the occurrence of Listeria species and Listeria monocytogenes in wastewater from the production line.
Keywords: Biofilm, Contamination, Factory, Listeria monocytogenes, yoghurt production