001 – STUDY OF BODY MASS INDEX AND BLOOD PRESSURE OF ADOLESCENT STUDENTS IN BOMO SECONDARY SCHOOL, ZARIA

Authors: Fatima Lami Ciroma,1 Maryam Baraka Akor-Dewu,2 Jemila Isah,2 Hajara Ali Umar,2 Fatima Yahya Jaafar1 and Rahmatu Ibrahim Idris Nigeria.

Abstract
Background: Body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure are among vital parameters used to assess nutritional and health status of individuals. Abnormal increase in BMI leads to overweight and obesity, which are associated with comorbidities including high blood pressure. Recently, childhood and adolescent obesity are becoming a major global health problem. This study aims to investigate whether the BMI and blood pressure pattern of adolescents in Government Secondary School Bomo, Zaria, is different in 2018 from what was obtained in 2004. A total of three hundred and five students were divided into 2 groups based on the year of study. Group1 (141 students from 2004 data) and group 2 (164 students, from 2018 data), comprising of both males and females within the age of 12 to 19 years. Age, weight height, systolic and diastolic blood pressures were measured using standard protocols, and BMI was calculated by dividing weight in kilogram by the square of height in metres, for each respondent. There was a significant (p< 0.05) increase in height (1.57± 0.102m); weight (48.21 ± 9.567kg); BMI (19.40 ± 2.163 kg/m²); SBP (115.47 ± 8.660 mmHg) and DBP (72.49 ± 8.304 mmHg) in group 2 when compared with group 1 (height (1.44 ± 0.112 m); weight (36.73 ± 8.759 kg); BMI (17.38 ± 2.074 kg/m SBP (103.00 ± 10.405 mmHg) and DBP (58.76 ± 10.661mmHg). SBP in females was not significantly different between the groups. Conclusion: There are significant changes in BMI and blood pressure in adolescents of Bomo, Zaria, in 2018 compared with 2004.
Key words: Body mass index, Blood pressure, Adolescents

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002 – MODELING OF GROUNDWATER POTENTIAL USING GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEM (GIS) AND REMOTE SYSTEM (RS) IN KADUNA NORTH LGA, KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA

Authors: Ingoroko T.S.1, Adie D.B.2 and Saulawa S.B.3 1 Department of Groundwater, National Water Resources Institute, Kaduna 2,3 Department of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria
Corresponding Author: tingoroko@gmail.com

Corresponding author email address: nichodemus2020@gmail.com
Phone Number: +2347035638389

Abstract
The availability of water is the principal factor in determining the growth of civilization and groundwater is considered as the main and most reliable source of water supply all over the world. The aim of the study is to model the groundwater potential in the study area for further groundwater development. For this study, six thematic layers (rainfall, lineament, geology, slope, drainage density and Land use land cover) were selected using GIS and conventional data with the help of ArcGIS 10.8 software and assigned suitable weights on the Saaty’s scale according to their relative importance in groundwater occurrence. The assigned weights were then normalized by using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) technique and eigenvector method. Finally, the thematic maps were integrated in GIS environment to generate a groundwater potential map. Thus, three groundwater potential zones were identified and demarcated as high, moderate and low, with area coverage of 17.21 km2 (24.52%), 31.99 km2 (45.57%) and 20.99 km2 (29.91%) respectively in the study area. Subsequently validation with boreholes yield data with respect to the observed groundwater potential modelled revealed a good correlation of 0.732 and analysis accuracy of 69.73%. The results again reflect the areal coverage of each zone accurately and the variations in each parameter. The results of the study are very helpful in applying sustainable development and management strategies for the groundwater. Different management plans such as development of rooftop rainwater harvesting system and artificial recharge system were recommended in the difficult zones, against the prevailing groundwater development.
Keywords: Borehole yield, GIS, groundwater potential, Kaduna North, Sustainable development

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003 – STUDY OF E-WASTE GENERATION AND END-OF-LIFE MANAGEMENT OPTIONS AMONG ELECTRONIC CONSUMERS AND TECHNICIANS WORKSHOPS IN SABON GARI ZARIA.

Author: *Y.OWOSENI, F.B. IBRAHIM AND A.A. ALIYU Department of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering, ABU Zaria, Nigeria
*Corresponding author: Yowoseni@abu.edu.ng, 07067892326

Abstract
Wastes resulting from electronic components have been on the increase due to advancement in technology, reuse, storage, and disposal of obsolete electronic materials. This study assessed available e-wastes in Sabon Gari (town) Zaria by determining their major sources, flow pattern, impacts and SWOT analysis. The study was carried out through physical evaluation of electronic equipment coming into the study area at a major motor park where these equipment are offloaded. Also, through the administration of structured questionnaires, interviews with consumers and technicians of electronic equipment, and quantification of extracted components from e-wastes. A sample size of 150 was used. A total of 6,249 pieces of ewastes were recorded, weighed as 161,121.5kg (161.12 tonnes) with 16.47%, 47.6% and 35.93% from wholesalers, technicians and consumers respectively in 2019. Consumers oft for reuse gadgets when compared to new gadgets due to their cheaper price advantage, with purchase rate varying from 50-80% and 20-50% for reuse and new gadgets respectively. Extracted ewastes components such as: steel, aluminium, and copper are sold for 40-50 naira/kg, 140-150 naira/kg and 800 naira/kg respectively. The study revealed prospective positive impacts of e-wastes management as a tool for economic development if appropriate recycling techniques are employed. SWOT analysis revealed the need to provide trainings on how to safely extract and package components of e-wastes for technicians and repairers in order to harmonize the activities of scavengers, recyclers and retailers as a Strategic Option (S-O) with establishing of monitoring and testing center at various importation ports where the status and possible life cycle of electronic equipment can be evaluated. Also, the management practice offer sustainable end-of-life e-wastes management options with possible improvement in the study area.
KEYWORDS: e-wastes, flow pattern, impacts, extracted components

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004 – EVALUATION OF NOISE LEVELS IN AHMADU BELLO UNIVERSITY MAIN CAMPUS, SAMARU.ZARIA, NIGERIA

Authors: Adah FRANCIS, Badruddeen Saulawa SANI, Umar Alfa ABUBAKAR Department of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering Ahmadu Bello University Zaria Kaduna State.
Corresponding Author: franciscoadah@gmail.com

Abstract
Noise sources and noise level measurements in Ahmadu Bello University main campus, Samaru Zaria were monitored for this study. Noise data was collected for Morning 7:30 – 8:30 am, Afternoon 1:00 to 2:00 pm, Evening 4:00 – 5:00 pm and Night 8:00 – 9:00 pm at 30s intervals for 60min periods for 19 sampling points. The noise level measurements were carried out triangularly at each sample point, taking note of their coordinates with a handheld GPS. The sound level meter, was used to measure sound levels according to recommended procedures. The sources and types of noise were observed as well. The data was collected at strategic sampling points within the Campus and was analyzed using descriptive statistics, mainly analysis of variance and noise time signal graph. Equivalent Continuous Level (Leq.), Noise Pollution Level (LNP), Noise Climate (NC), Percentile Noise Levels (L10, L90), nighttime noise level (LN), day-time noise level (LD), and day/night, time noise levels (LDN) were computed from the data obtained, then the Leq was compared with World Health Organization (WHO) and National Environmental Standards and Regulation Enforcement Agency (NESREA) standards for noise in an academic area. The average noise descriptors, Leq, LD, LDN, LN, LNP, TNI, NC, L10, L90, are 75.3dBA, 76.5dBA, 81.4dBA, 74.7dBA, 90.5dBA, 152.6dBA, 15.1 dBA, 82.2dBA, 67dBA, respectively, for the main-Gate roundabout with the highest values except for the noise climate. Similar readings were obtained for other locations. The higher values of noise level recorded at Main-gate Roundabout was mainly due to vehicular activities. This high noise level could lead to temporary or permanent loss of hearing, cardiovascular diseases and loss of concentration within the student population. The school authority should adopt appropriate measures to mitigate these high noise levels.
Key words: Noise level, Equivalent continuous level, Academic area

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005 – MODELLING AND OPTIMIZATION OF CADMIUM ADSORPTION ONTO RICE HUSK ACTIVATED CARBON

Authors: Adamu, A. D.* and Adie, D.B. Department of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Nigeria
Corresponding adamualiyu@abu.edu.ng, Tel: 08062619284

Abstract
The increase in the rice production in Nigeria has led to the presence of rice husk in the environment, thereby causing land pollution. Hence, the need to reuse the rice husk as an adsorbent for the removal of pollutants from wastewater. The aim of the study was to model and optimize cadmium adsorption onto activated carbon produced from rice husk. Rice husk activated carbon was produced using thermal and chemical method at three different carbonization temperatures of: 300, 350 and 400 ℃ using 1M phosphoric acid (H3PO4) as impregnating agent at the ratio of 2:1. In addition, modeling and optimization of the cadmium adsorption onto the rice husk activated carbon was carried out with design expert software (10) using carbonization temperature (300 – 400℃), initial cadmium concentration (5 – 25 mg/l) and adsorbent dosages (1 – 5 g) as the independent variables; while the removal efficiency and adsorption capacity were the responses. The optimum operating conditions obtained were: carbonization temperature of 398.721oC, initial cadmium concentration of 24.999 mg/l and adsorbent dosage of 1.227 g; while the optimized removal efficiency and adsorption capacity were: 99.826% and 2.138 mg/g, respectively with corresponding percentage errors of 0.168 and 4.724%. Conclusively, the study showed that rice husk is a viable adsorbent for the removal of cadmium from wastewater. The adsorption of cadmium onto rice husk activated carbon was model and optimized and errors were within the acceptable limit.
Keywords: Activated carbon, cadmium, modeling, optimization, rice husk

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006 – EFFECT ALUMINIUM OF SULPHATE SOLUTION ON CONCRETE STRUCTURES

Authors: EJEH S. P.+ SAMBO M.A.++ ADIE D.B.+++ Department of Civil Engineering Ahmadu Bello University, Samaru-Zaria Physical Planning and Municipal Services Ahmadu Bello University, Samaru – Zaria Department of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering, A.B.U Zaria E.mails: engrdrejeh@yahoo.com; aminusambo1@gmail.com; dbadie@abu.edu.ng

Abstract
Reinforced concrete structures are normally constructed to retain raw water in various treatment plants for the main purpose of obtaining potable water. Thus, the Ahmadu Bello University‟s reinforced concrete water treatment plant in Zaria used for treating raw water is the focus of this paper. It was observed that even though it is practiced the world over, the strength of concrete structures reduces with concentration (molarity) of the sulphate solution used in coagulation of the raw water. This research assessed the effect of various Alum concentrations on reinforced concrete of various grades. The relationship model obtained between the use of concrete structures and aluminium sulphate solution [Al2(SO4).12(H2O)] is a fourth order equation and gives the best fitting. Thus reinforced concrete structures used for water treatment facilities requires high grade of concrete such as grade 50, 60 and above or prestressed concrete with constant maintenance to withstand being corroded by the coagulant after constant attack. Keywords: Aluminium sulphate, cement, concrete, water treatment

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007 – GROUNDWATER FOR SUSTAINABILITY DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA:A REVIEW

Authors: GARUBA, H. S1, OTHMAN, M.K1, MUJAHID M.M2, OYEBODE M.A3 AND IGBADUN H.E3 1Department of Agric. and Irrigation Engineering, NAERLS, A.B.U. Zaria. 2Department of Water and Environmental Resources Engineering, A.B.U Zaria 3Department of Agricultural and Bioresources Engineering, A.B.U Zaria. *Corresponding authors‟ email: garubahalimah@gmail.com Phone Number: +2347036443684

Abstract
Groundwater is simply the water found below the earth surface in fractures of rock formations or pore spaces. It is a major source of water for domestic, agricultural and industrial uses. Despite the availability of vast water resources across Nigeria, access to safe water is still a challenge. Hence, this paper reviews the challenges hindering the use of groundwater for sustainable development in Nigeria despite the abundance of water resources across the country. Some of the challenges were found to be associated to over-exploitation in rural areas, urbanization, failed policies and management plans, poor data management, Inadequate funding of existing water resources programs, uncoordinated exploitation of ground water as well as the effects of climate change. The paper concludes with recommendations for proper strengthening of groundwater-related research and educational programs as well as monitoring of groundwater resources across the country in terms of its quantity and quality in all water resources development programs across the country to address some of these challenges. Keywords: Climate Change, Development, Groundwater, Nigeria, Sustainability

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