Since the degree of access to and control over resources within a society play significant roles in
differentiating members of a society in policy and decision making processes, peoples’ lives will be
greatly enhanced by clearly understanding how men’s and women’s subsistence and experiences differ
through the roles and responsibilities ascribed to them in their society and the changes brought about by
environment and development processes. It is from this backdrop that a situational analysis of the socioeconomic
impact of forest degradation on gender in Ebonyi State was conducted. Some agrarian
communities were sampled from the three Senatorial Zones of the State with both quantitative and
qualitative research instruments. Findings show that 70% of the sampled population agrees to decrease of
forest resources in the study area, 39.5% believe that there is loss of important plants and herbs and 95.9%
opined that men contribute to forest degradation more than women. Further analyses show a significant
relationship between the impact of forest degradation and changing gender roles and relation. It is
recommended that Local Governments should enforce environmental bye-laws against bush burning,
lumbering of trees and these laws should also take care of preservation of reserved forests, plants and
Key Words: Gender, Forest, Degradation, Situational analysis, Ebonyi State
An experiment was carried out to evaluate the weight gain and carcass characters of weaned Dutch rabbits
fed garlic (Allium sativum) and ginger (Zingiberofficinale). Thirty six (36) rabbits were randomly
assigned the dietary treatments in a complete randomized design with nine rabbits per treatment. The
rabbits were fed with iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous diets where treatment 1 (control) contained neither
garlic nor ginger, treatment 2 contained 0.25% garlic, treatment 3 contained 0.25% ginger and treatment 4
combined 0.25% garlic and 0.25% ginger. Experimental diets and clean drinking water were supplied ad
libitum throughout the experimental period of ten weeks. At the end of the feeding trial, three rabbits per
treatment were slaughtered for carcass evaluation.Results showed that there was significant (P<0.05)
differences in final liveweight, weight gain and feed conversion of the rabbit in treatments 3 and 4
relatively to the control. Weight gain and feed conversation ratio were best in treatment 3. Significant
(P<0.05) differences occurred in kidney and hind part of the rabbit in treatment 3 showing the best result at
0.25% inclusion level. Other carcass characters showed no significant (P<0.05) differences and treatment
3 had a better mean weight of carcass harvested organs across the table but such means were not able to
cause significant (P<0.05) differences. Means of treatment 2 with inclusion levels of garlic at 0.25% did
not differ much from that of control (treatment 1). Dressing percentages of 49% were recorded in
treatments 2, 3 and 4, while the control had 47.32%. From the results, it can be concluded that inclusion of
0.25% ginger (T3) in diets of rabbits and also 0.25% inclusion in garlic and ginger (T4) produced rabbits
with better weight and carcass characters.
Keywords: Dutch rabbit, weight gained carcass, ginger, garlic
Radiation therapy according to Saunders (2003) is the treatment of disease, usually cancer, by ionizing
radiation in order to deliver an optimal dose of either particulate or electromagnetic radiation to a
particular area of the body with minimal damage to normal tissues. Radiation doses to cancer patients
from the use of teletherapy and brachytherapy equipments from 2006 to 2011 were assessed at the
Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital (ABUTH), Zaria Nigeria. The analysed data comprised of
50 randomly selected cases of patients who were administered teletherapy treatment for various types of
cancer, and another 30 randomly selected cases of patients that received brachytherapy treatment for
cervical cancer. The ages of those patients varied from 4 70 years, 26 of those for teletherapy were
females while 24 were males, and all the 30 cases for brachytherapy were females. The minimum dose
administered was 15 Gy while the maximum dose was 66 Gy. The results showed that of all the 50 cases
assessed for teletherapy, 5 of them were given the exact maximum tolerable doses for their treatment
while 3 patients were administered the minimum prescribed doses, with doses to 6 patients falling within
the prescribed range. Similarly, 21 patients received doses below the prescribed range due to the
peculiarity of their conditions while only 2 patients, representing 4% of the total teletherapy cases
received doses slightly higher than the recommended level. In conclusion, the study reveals a 96%
adherence to International Commission for Radiation Protection (ICRP) recommended standard for
teletherapy procedures and 100% compliance for brachytherapy throughout the period under review.
Keywords: Radiation, Dose, Cancer, Patients, Teletherapy and Brachytherapy.
This paper reports the production of briquettes from rice husk as a sustainable and affordable alternative to
fuel wood which has caused wide deforestation thus contributing significantly to rising temperatures due
to increased greenhouse effects. The briquetting process advocated in this paper uses a method of low
compaction with the addition of appropriate binder in varying proportions. Proximate analysis and
physical evaluation tests were undertaken to determine the quality of the briquettes. Starch gel and acacia
gum were used as binders in six different proportions to determine the most suitable for use as briquette
binder. Sample A made with 60% wt/wt starch gel was found to be the most suitable briquette because of
its high heating value of 31, 093.77 kJ/kg. Sample C with 40% (wt/wt) of starch had the second highest
with a heating value of 30, 429.58 kJ/kg while sample E with 50% (wt/wt) of acacia gum had recorded the
least heating value of 29, 096.75 kJ/kg. In comparison with existing household fuels, the rice husk
briquettes were second best (with 12 minutes) to kerosene (with 11 minutes) in the water boiling test.
These results are strong indications that rice husk briquettes can be used as ready alternative to fuel wood
in meeting household energy needs, thus safeguarding our forest resources. This will go a long way in
boosting the carbon sequestration potentials of our forests to reduce the green house effects and reduce
rising global temperatures. By safeguarding our forest resources, the natural habitat of wild life will be
maintained and strengthened. In addition, briquetting rice husks will go a long way in sustainably
managing solid wastes from rice mills which presently constitute aesthetic nuisance, fire hazard and a
source of danger to playing children in rice producing and milling areas.
Key words: Deforestation, rice husk briquettes, solid waste, biomass, briquetting.
Samples of sachet packaged table water (popularly known as pure water) of four brands labeled A, B, C
and D, were taken weekly from their respective factories for four consecutive weeks. Each set of the
samples was analysed for the following physicochemical parameters: pH, total solids, hardness, chloride
and nitrate, to establish their levels of consistency and compliance with standard. The mean ranges of the
results covering the four brands are as follows: pH=6.49-7.33; total solids=35.10-82.26 mg/l;
hardness=14.00-26.00mg/l; chloride=31.95-33.02mg/l; nitrate =8.93 28.31mg/l. From the results
obtained the comparative assessment of the overall levels of physicochemical quality consistency of the
four brands can be stated as: B>A>D>C. Furthermore, all the brands complied with the World Health
Organization (WHO) standard for potable water, except for C which produced sub-standard samples that
failed the tests for pH and nitrate. Regular monitoring tests of this nature help to ensure compliance with
water quality standard, while positively addressing environmental health inequalities.
Keywords: Sachet-packaged water, analysis, physicochemical, parameter, consistency, standard.
Health though the outcome of genetic and biological processes is influenced by the social and economic
conditions in which we live. Inequalities in social conditions give rise to unequal and unjust health
conditions for different social groups. The social, economic, and political situations that affect the health
of individuals, communities, and societies are significant and therefore need to be understood in
addressing environmental health issues. Social factors such as poverty, food insecurity, social exclusion
and discrimination, poor housing, unhealthy early childhood conditions and low occupational status are
important determinants of most diseases, deaths and health inequalities between and within countries.
Social inequalities in the levels of income, poverty, education and access to healthcare facilities are
predominantly observable in agrarian societies and ought to be understood in planning intervention
programmes in the rural areas. This article made contributions on this front by examining the rural
agrarian society of Ebonyi State. The article adopted the ‘desktop research’ approach as the methodology,
making technical analysis of existing issues. Documents from the state health departments, publications,
journals, repositories, media and agencies reports and reviews on agrarian society in Ebonyi state were
used as sources of data and information. The article concluded by making suggestions on the way forward.
Key Word: Agrarian society, Determinant, Ebonyi, Environmental health, Inequalities, Social exclusion.
This research undertook an assessment of the gross alpha and beta radioactivity as well as some physical
parameters of wastewater from some industrial areas in Jos, Plateau state of Nigeria. Samples were
collected from the point of disposal of four industrial effluents and two drainage channels from residential
areas near those industries. MPC-2000 detector was used for the gross alpha and beta analysis. The results
obtained indicate gross alpha activity concentration levels ranging from 0.019±0.01 Bq/L to 66.27±0.01
Bq/L, while gross beta results are in the range of 3.01±0.01 Bq/L to 289.22±0.01 Bq/L. Both results
exceeded the maximum permissible limit set by WHO (2006) which is 0.1 Bq/L for gross alpha and 1.0
Bq/L for gross beta radioactivity, except the gross alpha for the first sample location. Similarly, the several
results for each of the physical parameters revealed levels of most samples that are beyond the maximum
limit recommended by WHO (2006). Chances of these wastewater running into surface water highlights
the potential danger posed by these industrial discharges.
Keywords: Activity Concentration, Gross Alpha, Gross Beta, Pollution, Wastewater, Industrial Effluent
This paper investigated the use of hydraulic ram pump on the high pressure feed side of a reverse osmosis
to reduce salinity, and heavy metals such as lead, chromium and copper in irrigation water. The influent
and effluent water qualities were analysed using standard methods to ascertain the performance of the
treatment system. The results showed that the electrical conductivity of the saline water was reduced from
2,310 μs/cm to 178 μs/cm. Lead, chromium and copper concentrations were reduced from 0.254mg/l,
0.020mg/l and 0.380 mg/l to 0.005 mg/l, 0.01 mg/l and 0.08 mg/l, respectively. The concentrations of the
effluent parameters were within the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) of the United Nations
standards for irrigation water. This implies that the design and fabrication of the system should be
encouraged for the application of good quality water to farmlands. This system is recommended for the
nations’ rural areas irrigation farming to ensure national sustainable development.
Key words: Hydraulic ram pumps, reverse osmosis, irrigation, salinity, heavy metals, irrigation farming
This research studied the impact of UBE Programme towards the promotion of basic education in Nigeria,
focusing on Kudan Local Government Area in Kaduna state with particular reference to the Girl-Child in
terms of enrollment and retention. Data was generated from Primary and Secondary sources. Primary
sources includes Questionnaires constructed and self-administered among 120 respondents made up of
40 teachers and 80 parents of girl-children in 6 Primary and 4 Junior secondary schools in Kudan LGA,
Oral Interview and Focused Group Discussion using cluster and purposive sampling. Secondary data
includes school records from principals of the Junior Secondary Schools and the information unit of the
Local Government Area used to generate data on enrolment and retention rate of boys/girls in Primary and
Junior Secondary schools over the years understudy. The data was quantitatively analyzed with the aid of
the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 2.0 0f 2010, to obtain frequency, percentage
and cumulative percentage to responses to the questions presented in the questionnaire. The results
revealed that the UBE Programme has not improved enrolment and retention rate of girls in Primary and
Junior Secondary Schools in Kudan Local Government from 2005-09, especially in the secondary
schools with an enrolment and retention ratio of 72.27% Boys and 27.73% Girls in 2005 to 73.27% Boys
and 26.73% Girls in 2009 for Primary schools. For secondary schools, data obtained from school records
shows an enrolment and retention ratio of 88.1% Boys and 11.9% Girls in 2005 and 73.5% Boys and
26.5% Girls in 2009. On the question of factors responsible for low enrolment and retention of girls in
schools in this Local Government, (50%) of the respondents indicated early marriage, (30%) poverty, and
(20%) said ignorance concerning female education weremajor reasons for the low retention rate of girls in
schools in the Local Government Area. Based on the data generated and presented, the research
concluded that the Universal Basic Education Programme (UBE), has not impacted on Girls education in
Kudan Local Government Area in terms of enrollment and retention during the period under study (2005-
2009) based on the data generated and presented.
This study was carried out to examine the catalytic effects of Single Super Phosphate and Wood ash on
biogas production from co digestion of Chicken Droppings with Digitaria Smooth II. Apre designed
digester was adopted and fabricated using locally available materials. The study was carried out in four
identical reactors to enable variation of the catalyst combination (100gSSP/50gWoodash,
150gSSP/75gWoodash and 200gSSP/100gWoodash). The research showed that SSP and Wood ash could
reduce the lag phase in anaerobic digestion.The Modified Gompertz equation was used to adequately
describe the cumulative biogas production.The control had the longest lag phase 8.9 days as compared to
7.9 days with catalyst.At the end of 32 days digestion period, there was significant difference in volume of
biogas produced across the digesters from 0.0646m3 (no catalyst) to 0.1087m3 (200gSSP/100gWood ash),
indicating 40.6% increment.The Modified Gompertz equation was applied to describe the cumulative
biogas generation. The estimated Kinetic Constants using linear regression and other characteristics of the
four digesters were obtained. 0.0025m3, 0.0028m3, 0.0031m3, and 0.0046m3 for Biogas Production Rate
and 0.0647m3, 0.0737m3, 0.0808m3 and 0.1088m3 for Biogas Production Potential. The average
temperatures of the digesters recorded were 35.25 0C, 35.28 0C, 35.30 0C, and 35.40 0C respectively while
the average ambient temperature observed during the study was 36 0C which were within the mesophilic
Keyword: Biogas, Chicken Droppings, Single Super Phosphate, Wood ash, Modified Gompertz
Escherichia coli is a commensal organism that live as normal flora in warm- blooded animals and the
serotype Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a major foodborne pathogen that inhabit the hindgut of some
animals. The major reservoir of E. coli O157:H7 are cattle and small ruminants that contaminate the
environment through their faecal material although pigs have also been known to carry it. Infection to
human occur through faecal oral route of transmission. This study investigated the presence of E. coli
O157:H7 in the faeces of pigs. A total of 100 samples were collected, 50 each from two different piggeries
in Samaru, Zaria in Kaduna State of Nigeria. The samples were analysed to isolate E. coli O157:H7 using
Rapid Latex Agglutination test Kit and Enzyme Immunoassay (RIDA(R) Quick Verotoxin/O157 Combi).
The result of the study showed biochemically characterized isolation rate of E. coli as 74% in from
Samaru new extension and 34.1% at Samaru hayin danyaro piggery. A 1% isolation rate of E. coli
O157:H7 from Samaru new extension using Rapid Latex Agglutination test and 0% using Enzyme
Immunoassay were also obtained. In conclusion, the study has established 1% prevalence of E. coli
O157:H7 at Samaru new extension piggery. It was therefore recommended that public health education be
carried out by government to sensitize people rearing pigs in their neighbourhood on the need to maintain
strict hygiene to minimize environmental contamination with the pathogen.
Keywords: Escherichia coli, piggeries, faecal matter
Decision Support Tools (DSTs) are decision trees or decision support systems that use tree-like graphs or
models, respectively, for decisions and they are applicable to Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH)
sustainability. DSTs were designed for the selection of appropriate water supply source and sanitary
system for rural areas. The decision support systems were based on decision trees designed to aid decision
regarding WASH. The water supply decision tree and sanitation decision tree were integrated in a WASH
DST model with two externalities: the WASH practitioners and the WASH environment. A simulation
study was demonstrated to compare the results of the developed decision tree, for water source, with the
results of an existing Decision Support System (DSS) algorithm for water supply source selection in
Uzea, Edo State. The DSS algorithm added evaluation scores for each water source cumulatively to arrive
at the best most suitable option. The DSS algorithm results showed that ground water and rainwater
harvesting were suitable in the study area with cumulative scores of 121and 116 respectively, and also, the
developed water supply decision tree indicated that both water sources were suitable as well. Both
decision support tools showed that surface water was not a suitable option. Consequently, the tools were in
good agreement. The developed decision trees are suitable for implementation in any rural setting or
developing country and hence, recommended for use as WASH decision support tools to ensure
availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation in any rural setting or developing
Key words: WASH, Decision Support Tools, Decision Trees, Decision Support Systems,
The monitoring of well water quality is very significant as it helps to ascertain the health hazards
associated with the use of contaminated water. In this study, seven (7) wells (W – W ), were considered at 1 7
distances of: 30 m, 32.5 m, 34 m, 35 m, 37 m, 39 m and 40 m, from a dumpsite. The depths of the wells (W1
– W )were: 10.5, 9.8, 10.6, 10.7, 8.9, 7.5 and 9.5, respectively. The result clearly shows that the presence of 7
the waste dumpsite close to the wells had impacted the quality of their waters. For instance, well W , by 1
virtue of being the closest to the dumpsite was found to have higher readings of measured quality
parameters than the remaining six wells despite the fact it had metallic apron. W recorded TDS, BOD, 1
COD, chloride and nitrates of: 356 mg/l, 4.50 mg/l, 430 mg/l, 2.5 mg/l and 4.8 mg/l, respectively during
the month of June. On the other hand, it recorded TDS, BOD, COD, chloride and nitrates of: 370 mg/l,
4.90 mg/l, 440 mg/l, 2.82 mg/l, 5.0 mg/l, during the month of July; while it recorded TDS, BOD, COD,
chloride and nitrates of: 350 mg/l, 4.52 mg/l, 436 mg/l, 5.6 mg/l and 21.1 mg/l, respectively during the
month of August. Result for regression analysis indicates that the depths and distances of the wells to the
dump site contributed: 72.2%, 80.8%, 60.4%, 73.0%, 91.3% and 71.4%, respectively for the variations in
the turbidity, alkalinity, BOD, COD, chloride and nitrate, which were all statistically significant at 95%
confidence level. On the other hand, the depths and distances of the wells to the dump site contributed
only: 16.0%, 3.5%, 46.3%, and 7.3%, respectively to the changes in the electrical conductivity, hardness,
TDS and fluoride of the wells but were not statistically significant at 95% confidence. It was discovered
that the wells are more polluted during the rainy season due to higher infiltration of rainwater. It was
recommended that the wells should be provided with proper lining and a cover. Additionally, dumpsites
should be adequately designed and strategically located such that they are less likely to be a source of
Keywords: Wells, water quality, Physico-chemical and waste dumpsite
Composting is a process of controlled biological decomposition of biodegradable materials under managed conditions that are predominantly aerobic and allow the development of thermophilic temperatures as a result of heat produced biologically. The open pile and the windrow methods were used in composting cow, poultry and municipal solid waste for twelve (12) weeks. The total plate count t and temperature were determined during composting and in the finished products. The results showed a steady weekly decline which stabilizes at week 11 and 12 with 6 and 8 having counts greater than 5.0cfu-g (log 10) in the cow waste composted. The mean temperatures of cow waste and poultry waste peaked at 43-7oC and 43.9oC respectively while municipal solid waste was 44.3oC. The results showed no significant differences among the various waste composted (P> 0.05; 0.923). The final compost quality met the recommended standard by the European Union for finished compost. Large scale, wide spread and further researches are highly recommended.
Keywords: Solid waste, animal and municipal, composting, plate count, temperature
Many decades ago were characterized by low human and animal populations, low technological advancement, low pollutant concentrations, and low incidence of natural disasters. Hence man did care much to protect trees and other plant resources. Presently, with the above indices at their watershed, the need for developing countries especially Nigeria, to tenaciously safeguard floral resources becomes absolutely imperative. To drive this urgency home, the United Nations has also put in place “compensation” for Nations that can preserve at least 25% of their floral heritage (forests particularly). This is one area in which Anambra State has not made much progress. If a steady state between the biotic and abiotic environment must be maintained, man must first of all establish mutual homeostasis between himself and plants.
Keywords: Trees, Floral resources, abuse and neglect, steady state
Adequate wastes characterization or classification into biodegradable and non-biodegradable forms is a requirement for effective waste management. Improperly classified waste leads to a lack of proper management, consequential health hazards and unappealing eyesores in the environment. The objectives of this study were to identify locations of different dump sites in Samaru, Zaria, to identify the different types of non-biodegradable wastes produced within the area, study how the non-biodegradable waste are managed and to evaluate the effects of these wastes on the environment. The results show that several dumpsites exist within Samaru, Zaria, most of them located within residential areas, along streets and railway lines and in school premises. The non-biodegradable wastes produced in Samaru include; polythene bags, plastic bottles, plastic containers, light bulbs, metals (milk tins, beverage cans, scraps etc). These wastes are managed mainly by incineration and recycling. Effects of these wastes include; release of CO2 into the environment through incineration, blockage of drainages and pipes which obstruct the free flow of water and cause flooding of compounds. They also serve as breeding grounds for mosquitoes, bacteria, fungi and other disease-causing organisms; create an unhygienic and foul-smelling environment. Animals can ingest these wastes which can cause GIT obstruction and rumen impaction. Some of these wastes contain toxic substances (e.g. fluorescent bulbs contain mercury, a chemical that is harmful to humans, animals and ecological health). In conclusion, the study found that several dumpsites are not properly located in Samaru, Zaria and that the residents of Samaru dump wastes indiscriminately. It was also observed that waste management is poor in this area and that dumpsites create an unhygienic and foul-smelling environment which can lead to spread of several diseases. Appropriate measures from regulatory agencies and individuals concerned were suggested.
Keywords: Waste, pollution, biodegradable, non-biodegradable, environment
In most rural agro-based economies, people’s livelihoods are dependent on land and its resources. When such land is degraded, food security is challenged. This study was conducted to examine the nature and causes of land degradation, and the socio-economic impacts on food security in Ebonyi State. The multistage cluster sampling was used following the existing 3 senatorial zones of the state (North, Central and South). A local government was selected from each of the zones (Abakiliki from the North, Ikwo from the Central and Ohaozara from the South). Apart from survey sample, qualitative instruments (FGD, SSI and KII) were also used. It was found that the nature of land degradation in the areas were gradual caused by continuous cropping, poor farming practices, bush burning, and mining activities. It was recommended that conscious efforts on land management practices be promoted among farmers and all stakeholders involved in agricultural activities.
Keywords: Land, Degradation, Food Security, Multistage, Ebonyi
This study was carried out to determine the main species of protozoan oocysts of intestinal parasites in faecal samples of dog owners’ children, children from homes without dogs (CHWD) and dogs in some selected area in Zaria of Kaduna State Nigeria. This was achieved in collaboration with ethnical clearance from the selected schools. It also determined the prevalence of protozoan oocysts in children of dog owners and children from homes without dogs in Zaria.
Keywords: Protozoan oocysts, dogs, pupils, prevalence, Zaria.
This work was carried out to ascertain the level of (e–waste) awareness on electronics waste and the accompanied health hazard when not properly disposed off. The study also aimed to verify the present method of storage and disposal after the electronics useful life span has been exceeded. The study was carried out through street by street site visit to identify disposal sites, storage facilities and workshop for repairs of electronics in the community and also simultaneously conducted a manual count of the quantities of e-waste found in each of the identified site. To facilitate means of data collection, questionnaires were administered and also oral interviews were conducted with the key informants. From the survey result obtained, 1,711 different e-waste items were found within the research area ranging from television set to hand set. The three sources of e-waste identified within the community were 41 repair workshops, individual households and at uncontrolled dumped site that is capable of ground water pollution. The findings from this research showed that there was 28 percent level of e-waste awareness with it associated health problems in the study area and no controlled dumped site and storage facilities were identified. It was revealed that 139 of items ranging from television set to mobile phone were kept at individual households. The repair workshops serve as temporary storage where the e-waste awaits spare parts that may never come. This work was able to establish that there is need to create e-waste awareness in the community and also highlight the dangers involved in keeping e-waste within human reach. Finally, recommendations were made on how to effectively manage e-waste in the study area.
Keywords: E-waste, dump site, pollution, awareness
The environmental pollution hazards due to the use of drilling fluids in the oil and gas sector were studied. Grab samples of spent drilling fluids, water and soil were collected from 7 locations in the oil field when the depth of the well was 3658m, before the 3962m pay zone. Samples were analyzed to determine the concentrations of contaminants such as Barium (Ba), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium total (Cr), Copper (Cu), Iron III (Fe3+), Lead (Pb), Manganese (Mn), Vanadium (Vn) and Zinc (Zn) in the treated and untreated SDFs, water, soil, ash and sludge samples that might constitute environmental hazards, in accordance with the Department of Petroleum Resources and American Public Health Association’s guidelines and methods. The concentrations and the spatial distributions of the pollutants released to the environment were established through modeling with Ogata-Banks model equation and the material balance equations. The results of the test showed that these substances have levels above the recommended limits in the environment. These contaminants which are deleterious, toxic and hazardous, have led to large-scale human health problems and environmental degradation in the sensitive wetlands of the Oil Fields in the Niger Delta.
Keywords: Ogata Banks, material balance, Oil field, Drilling Fluids, Heavy Metals, Modeling
Adsorption with activated carbon is widely used in water treatment for removal of various micro organic pollutants. The study was carried out in other to compare the effects of African Locust Bean (Parkia biglobosa) pod as compared to Bone Char as activated carbon in waste water treatment. The activated carbon was obtained from carbonized P. biglobosa pod with a temperature range from 350 to 500ºC and activated by Phosphoric acid for 12-18hrs. Turbidity removal efficiency for P. biglobosa was found to be higher than Bone char with percentage values of 70.9% and 43.6% respectively. Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) significantly reduced from 250mg/L to 6.2mg/L and 5.8mg/L for P. biglobosa and Bone char with equivalent percentages of 97.52% and 97.7% respectively. Nitrate reduction for Bone char was high as compared to P. biglobosa with values of 72.5% and 87.5% respectively. Phosphate reduction for Bone char was high as compared to Parkia biglobosa with values of 22% and 51.2% respectively. The results showed that P. biglobosa activated carbon has the potential for wastewater quality parameters improvement. This is significant since the P. biglobosa pod is treated as a waste after removing the yellowish pulp and seed and is less expensive than bones.
Keywords: Pakia biglobosa, activated carbon, adsorption, wastewater
The equivalent continuous noise levels of nine companies/industries in Jos-Bukuru metropolis were investigated using the Impulse Precision Sound Level Meter Type 2209 in conjunction with ⅓-Octave Filter set, Type 1616. The measurements showed that the noise was essentially broad-band, continuous and steady-state; and the equivalent continuous noise levels in all the workplaces, excepting one, were higher than the proposed 70dBA as an 8-hr time-weighted average. Sound exposure levels, daily noise doses, and time-weighted averages determined for the studied workplaces were considered high and capable of causing noise-induced hearing loss among the workers.
Keywords: Noise level, workplace, exposure risk, occupational hazard, impaired hearing.
Solar drying is not only a method for substituting fossil fuels using solar energy, but a technology for producing dried materials of required quality. Solar energy utilization is needed to a greater extent because of its advantageous characteristics, as an environment friendly, sustainable alternative and naturally abundant energy source which satisfies the global requirements of a sustainable development. A solar cabinet dryer was developed to compare the effect of solar drying (D1) and open-sun drying (D2) on the percentage moisture reduction from ginger under different size-reduction treatments (W, S and P). The temperature and relative humidity of the heated drying air in the solar dryer varied from 37-700c and 58-36%, with the ambient conditions at 28-39.50c and 65-46%, respectively. Under the two drying techniques, WD samples (WD1 and WD2) were not effectively dried throughout the drying experiments. The drying periods for SD2, PD1 and PD2 conform with the standard drying time range of 7 – 14 days. SD1 samples effectively dried after only 4days of drying, showing an improvement over the existing standard drying time range of 7-14 days. Comparative analysis of the solar cabinet dryer and the conventional open- sun drying showed that solar drying takes less time to dry, with superior products of clean and attractive appearance and without contamination of any sort. The developed solar cabinet dryer is recommended for ginger farmers in the ginger producing zones of the country.
Keywords: Ginger, size-reduction, dehydration, sun-drying, solar-drying, renewable energy
Water heating was used to evaluate the cooking performance of a solar box cooker developed at the Samaru College of Agriculture, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria. The test was conducted for 3dys and temperature variations at the intervals of 30minutes were observed for 5hours daily. Ambient temperature (Ta), maximum heating temperature (Tmax) and the average heating temperature (Tav) were found to be important parameters for measuring the performance of the solar box cooker. The results of the study showed that the solar box cooker attained a maximum heating temperature of 82oC at 12:30 pm during the heating period, with an average heating temperature of 77oC. Available literature suggests that food cooking with solar cookers is faster between the two hours before and after the local solar noon (12:00noon) compared to the hours of early morning or late afternoon. The heat absorption rate of the heating water at each time interval was 280kj. The maximum heating temperature of 82oC attained by the solar box cooker suggests that the solar box cooker is quite effective for use as an alternative to both open-fire biomass stove and kerosene stove. It is suggested that a built up provision on the solar box cooker to enable the use of thermometer during observation of temperature variation without opening the box will produce higher heating performance above 82oC.
Keyword: Cooking, heating; Solar box cooker; Solar radiation; household energy source
The aim of this study was to compare and analyze the biogas production of cow dung wastes from different sources based on their feed intakes: grass only, grass and supplements, supplements only, and a mixture of cow dung based on grass and large intestine organic matter (from abattoir). The experiment was initiated with the mixture of each of the cow dung substrate and water in a slurry ratio (v/v) of 1:3 and digested for a period of 15 days each. The pH, temperature, nitrate and phosphate constituents of the substrate in the digester were measured before, during and after digestion. The biogas production was observed for each of the experiment. Cow dung substrate (supplements) produced the lowest biogas production with a cumulative volume of 0.355m3 while cow dung substrate based on grass and intestine organic matter produced the highest cumulative volume of 1.86m3. It was concluded that cow dung mixed with large intestine organic matter from abattoir should be used as substrate for biogas production on a large scale and should be encouraged for commercial production.
Keywords: Biogas, Cow dung, Substrate, Commercial production
In this paper, attempt was made to establish the relationship between pollution effects occasioned by gas flaring resulting from petroleum production and its socio-economic impact on Ibeno Community in Akwa Ibom State where gas flaring has been a major part of petroleum production over the years. A survey design was adopted for the study to assess particularly the effect of gas flaring on human health and building structures. The data generated were analyzed with the aid of descriptive statistical techniques. The study revealed that gas flaring occasioned by petroleum production by Mobil Oil Company generated pollutants into the environment. These pollutants had consequential effects on human health and building structures. In monetary terms, the cost of pollution to the community was estimated to be ₦122.9 million annually and ₦1.8 billion in fifteen years period (1996 – 2010). This huge amount could have substantial economic benefits on the community if well managed. It was recommended that appropriate regulation and control measures/policies should be adopted to ensure acceptable levels of pollution.
Keywords: Gas flaring, pollution, public health, housing, economy, Ibeno.
Soils in Northern Guinea Savannah zone in Nigeria are continually been degraded as a result of continuous cultivation especially of cereal crops. They perceived soil degradation mainly by reduced yields. International Fertilizer Development Centre (IFDC) Africa implemented the International Soil Fertility Management (ISFM) Project to increase efficiency of resource use particularlyof fertilizer. Most of the farmers in the study area hardly use Improved Soil Management practices. This study therefore investigates farmers’ perception of the Integrated Soil Fertility Management technology in Danja Local Government of Katsina State. Total of sixty (60) farmers representing 20% of the pilot farmers involved in this pilot scheme were randomly selected from Danja, Tsangamawa and Kahutu villages. Structured questionnaires were used to obtain information from the respondents. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze the data. Results of the study revealed that most (82%) of the respondents were males while 95%were married. Also, majority (35%) have non-formal education. All farmers belong to one associations or the other since it is a pre-requisite for participating in the ISFM project. The farmers generally see the ISFM technology as positively impactful in their livelihood due to the observed increased yield by 95% of the respondents and improving the soil fertility (98%)by using available nutrient resources more efficiently, effectively, and sustainably than in the past.. Major constraint is the scarcity of crystallizer and lack of sufficient credit facility. The study recommends optimising advantages of group dynamics by both governmental and non-governmental agenciesto ensure input and credit availability.
Keywords: Farmers’ perception, soil fertility, integrated management technology, fertilizer
The occupational and safety provision of a seed production company in Nigeria was reviewed by means of structured questionnaires. The results of the study revealed that awareness on occupational hazards related to seed production by workers was very high (96%) which suggests that the staff have some training on safety and safety measures. Also, the incidence of occupational hazards is very low as 93% of the staff claimed to be unaware of any incident since they joined the company and 81% of those who have witnesses incidence of occupational hazards in the company rated the company’s response to such incidence as satisfactory. All the staff (100%) asserted to the availability of safety measures in the company, however only 86% of them agreed that such safety measures were adequate while 14% believe that it should be improved upon. The study revealed that adequate supervision of workers on use of protective wears, first aid boxes and fire extinguishers are carried out. Also, the provision of milk, monthly medical allowance, and free medical care has encouraged the workers to be more committed to work. The environmental audit of the company showed that the building is in good condition and the general yard sanitation is very good.
Keywords: Occupational safety, environmental inspection, seed producing company
The study examined the alternative utilization of domestic fuels in the face of kerosene scarcity. The objective is to identify the preferred domestic fuel and it effects. Survey method was adopted in the study. A sample size of 400 households was used for the study. The procedure adopted in selecting the 400 households was multi-stage random sampling. Data was collected through a structured questionnaire and analyzed using simple percentage and multiple regression analysis. Results showed fuel-wood as the popular domestic fuel during kerosene scarcity in rural and urban areas of Cross River State but popular utilization of fuel-wood has serious consequences in the environment such as deforestation, environmental degradation and health hazards. It is suggested that energy policy of Nigeria should be reviewed to pave way for environmentally friendly domestic fuel utilization.
Keywords: Domestic energy, fuel-wood, deforestation, health hazards
Small scale mining in the southern part of Kaduna State where agriculture is the main source of livelihood has in the last three decades brought employment and revenue generation but simultaneously impacted negatively on agriculture and biosphere of immediate environment. This study examined the effects of small scale tin and sapphire surface mining on land use for agricultural production in the study area. A multi-stage sampling technique was used to select 120 respondents from the mining communities. Data were obtained using structured questionnaire and guided interview with the community leaders. The results showed that about 75.8% of the respondents were involved in mining activities, and earned about N29,863 monthly while the 65% that were involved in farming earned N19,197 per month. About 96% opined that mining resulted to decreased crop production, land conflict (93%) and disputes (92%). This study confirms that about 1.8 hectares of farmland per family was lost to mining activities, resulting in destruction of the genetic soil profile, displacement of wildlife and habitat, alteration of land uses, and change in the general topography of the area. Hence a serious threat to food security and requires urgent government intervention to enforce laws controlling mining activities in the area.
Keywords: Mining, land use, land degradation, crop failure, habitat destruction
Population increase coupled with the rise in demand for construction materials like granite and gravels have necessitated the continued growth of quarry activities in and around Akamkpa LGA. This research work was conducted to ascertain the effect of age on anthropometric, lung function and blood pressure parameters among the quarry workers of Akamkpa. Observation, experimental studies and historical methods were used. A structured questionnaire and the vitalograph chart containing the spirograms of each of the workers. A calibrated aneroid sphyngmanometer (SF 60502) was equally used. Among the test subjects, the anthropometric, lung function (Except FEVI %) and blood pressure parameters were all significantly (P<0.01) dependent on age. The reverse is the case with the control subjects where all the anthropometric lung function showed no significant when compared to age of workers, but the blood pressure parameters were all significantly (P<0.001) dependent on age. And recommended that aged persons should not be expose nor engage in prolong hard job like quarrying.
Key Words: Appraisal, Age, Anthropometric, Quarry, Effect, Workers, Akamkpa
This study was designed to determine the occurrence of Listeria species and Listeria monocytogenes in three yoghurt production facilities in Kaduna metropolis, Nigeria. A total of 156 samples were collected from processing environment (floor drains biofilms, floors, walls and tables), processing equipment (fermentation tanks) and wastewaters. Fifty-four (54) samples were collected from each factory before and during production. Listeria species were assessed using Listeria selective agar while speciation of the isolates was done using Microgen Listeria ID kit. The Listeria count, before and during production, were done and expressed as log10mean ± SEM cfu/ml. Before production, the highest count was observed in factory A (5.11 ± 0.32) and lowest in factory C (3.60 ± 0.30). During production, Listeria count was highest in factory B (5.68 ± 0.53) and least in factory C (3.49 ± 0.12). No significant difference (p > 0.05) in the counts obtained before and during production in each of the three factories. Listeria species were detected in 6 (11.54%) of samples from factory A and 12 (23.08) were found in factory B. No Listeria was detected in samples from factory C. Listeria monocytogenes 4 (33.3%) was detected in samples from factory B and 8 (66.7%) of the Listeria species were Listeria grayi. In factory A, 4 (66.7%) of the Listeria species were Listeria grayi while 2 (33.3%) were Listeria ivanovii. The results of this study demonstrate possible risk of contamination of yoghurt produced by these factories owing to the occurrence of Listeria species and Listeria monocytogenes in wastewater from the production line.
Keywords: Biofilm, Contamination, Factory, Listeria monocytogenes, yoghurt.production
The textile industry has been an important segment of the Nigerian economy, accounting for about 15% of output and 37% of employment in manufacturing at its peak in 1994. Thus, the industry has an important economic development role in Nigeria as both an employment and output generator. However, recent events in the last two decades present substantial challenges for the industry. Today, there are less than 25 textile manufacturing companies in the country. This represents an 80% reduction from the 124 companies that were in existence in 1994. Since Nigeria lacks sufficient self-produced energy, increasing energy efficiency and energy savings are therefore crucial and essential to the Nigeria textile manufacture and market. This study summarizes energy-saving measures for energy users in the Textile industry, in addition, it identifies the areas in the textile firm where energy can be saved and also provide an energy efficiency baseline for adoption.
Keyword: Nigeria, textile, industry, energy, and efficiency.
This study was carried out to assess the cardiorespiratory effect of quarrying activities on worker’s health in Sabon Gari Local Government Area of Kaduna state, Nigeria. A sample size of 38 was used for the study as test group while 60 persons in the non-occupational sites were selected and used as comparison group making a total of 98 subjects.. Cross sectional study was conducted in the stone crushing site. The mean lung (ventilatory function indices FCV, FEV, and peak flow were significantly (p<0.05) lower in the test subjects compared with the comparison group. No significant difference was noted in the value of FEV%. (FVC: 4.01± 0.1 (comparison group), 3.54±0.1 (Test); FEV1: 2.90± 0.1 (comparison group), 2.34± 0.1 (Test) and Peak flow: 387.13± 13 (comparison group), 323.66± 14 (Test). The mean value of systolic blood pressure between the test and the comparison group is significant, 126.58± 3.0 and 119.50± 1.3 respectively. There was also a significant difference in mean of the diastolic blood pressure between the test and comparison group, 82.11± 1.7 and 78.3± 1.0 respectively (p< 0.05). The recommendations proffered include the need for safety consciousness and routine inspection and effective monitoring of quarrying activities by the regulatory agencies and appropriate sanctions meted to defaulters.
Keywords: Quarrying, Cardiorespiratory, Inhalation, Hazard, Parameter
Rapid changes in the technology of electronics (CDs, software, MP3 etc), their falling prices, and the equally rapid obsolescence of the devices have resulted in a fast-growing accumulation of electronic wastes (e-waste) around the globe. Hence, an entirely new economic sector is evolving around the trade, repair and recovery of materials from redundant electronic devices; and this has opened up a new source of livelihood for urban settlers in Nigeria. This study is directed at evaluating the various types of electronic wastes found with electronics repairers/ re-furbishers and with collectors of e-waste scraps in some parts of the country. The study also examines the economic viability of e-waste enterprise in Nigeria. The investigation was carried out through the administration of structured questionnaires and by conducting key informant interviews with some electronics repairers and e-waste scrap dealers in Lagos, Abuja and Kaduna. The results of the study show that electronics repairers earn between N27,000 to N45,000 every month, the lower cadre e-waste collectors (popularly referred to as ‘mallams’) earn an average of N30,000 per month while the e-waste merchants or high cadre e-waste collectors make an average net profit of as much as N100,000.00 per month. The study also revealed that the e-waste business is not only profitable but also comparable to other urban livelihood supports and will go a long way in reducing poverty level among the urban settlers in Nigeria, who engage in the enterprise.
Keywords: e-waste, electronics repairers, e-waste collectors, scrap dealers, livelihood.
Biogas yield and quality from cow and pig dung were evaluated. Two metal drums of capacity 200lt were used as biodigesters for the study. Slurry samples of mixture ratios of 1:1(80kg of cow dung to 80lt of water ) and 1:2(40kg of pig dung to 80lt of water) for the cow-dung biodigester and the pig-dung biodigester, respectively. The biodigesters were maintained within the mesophillic temperature range (25-40oc), at a retention period of 10days. The digesters were painted black to enhance effective surface absorption of solar radiation during the day, with occasional shaking of the digesters to prevent the formation of scum. Biogas yields from pig dung were higher, with a mean daily yield of 0.03m3 than those from cow dung, which had a mean daily yield of 0.02m3. Combustibility and flame characteristics of biogas samples produced from the two biomass sources were monitored. Gas samples from the pig dung ignited readily with characteristic clear blue and stable flames. Gas samples from cow dung were readily ignited, but the flames exhibited dull blue characteristic. Clear blue and stable flames indicated biogas with high methane content (> 50%) and high thermal energy content. Pig dung therefore was proven to be a better alternative source for rural household energy needs, where poultry waste and other methane-rich biogas yielding biomass are lacking. The use of water cylinders with inverted floating cylinders as gas holder helped to clean the biogas produced by removing carbon dioxide, water vapour, hydrogen sulphide and other incombustible gaseous compounds.
Keywords: Biogas; Yield and combustion; Cow dung; Pig dung; Evaluation
The effect of the plant products Artemisia annua crude aqueous extract, Aloe vera gel and oil of Moringa oleifera on the mortality of C. subinnotatus at three levels of application 2 ml/kg, 4 ml/kg and 8 ml/kg were investigated. The treatments were compared with Actellic 2% dust at 10 g/kg and Azadirachta indica seed oil at 2 ml/kg as standards and an untreated control. The bioactivity of the plant products was studied under prevailing laboratory conditions for a period of two years. The design of the experiment was completely randomized design with three replicates. Data was analyzed using Microsoft Excel 2003 and SPSS 13.0. The plant oil from M. oleifera at all levels of application achieved 100% mortality of the bruchid after 24h of application and compared favourably to the synthetic insecticidal dust and neem seed oil at 5% level of significance (single factor ANOVA and SNK). The mode of action of the plant product demonstrated contact, repellent and fumigant toxicities against the bruchid. Treatment with A. vera at the rate of 8 ml/kg compared favourably to the M. oleifera and standard treatments from 24h in the second trial. It showed positive fumigant and contact toxicities but had no repellent effect against the bruchid. All treatments demonstrated some biological activity against the bruchid and can be used as a cheap, readily available and environmentally friendly alternative biopesticide.
Keywords: Phytotoxicity, neem seed oil, Moringa seed oil, Aloe vera oil and gel, bruchids
Billions of people on a global scale lack potable drinking water, increasing their vulnerability to diarrhoeal and parasitic diseases. A total of 186 well water, soil from dump sites and liquid waste close to sampling well were obtained from parts of Zaria. Using the concentration sedimentation techniques the samples were centrifuged at 500rpm for 5 minutes and examined microscopically. A total of 41(32%) samples contained helminthes eggs/ova were counted out of 128 well water samples tested. The results showed a significant difference between the wet and dry season. Adequate treatment of well water as well as public health education is highly recommended.
Keywords: Health, Helminthes, infection, municipal solid waste, well water
The prevalence of malaria parasitaemia among children using insecticide treated net was investigated in Idah metropolis for two malaria transmission seasons. In each survey questionnaires were administered on previous parity history and malaria parasitaemia were determined. A total of 300 children between the ages of 4-12 years were enrolled in general hospital Idah. A total of 194 (65%) uses ITN net and out of these number 24 (12%) had microscopic parasitaemia. There were more positive cases among the non users of ITN showing that ITN are important tools for eliminating malaria infection in our society.
Keywords: Malaria, pregnant, parasitaemia, ITN.
The ability of farmers in Zangon Kataf Local Government Area of Kaduna State to perceive and detect climate change and its consequences is the subject of this study. In spite of the efforts that have been made towards mitigating the effects of climate change, research and policies directed towards the locality, the indigenous knowledge and perception are still highly needed. This research is focused on the perception of the local farmers about their local environment. Structured Questionnaires were used to obtain relevant information for the research. 70% of the respondents (farmers) strongly agreed that the local environment is changing. Only 66.2% are of the opinion that the climate is also changing. The survey revealed that over 57% and 52% of farmers believe temperatures have been increasing while precipitation has been declining respectively. Over 48% of the farmers also believe that the changing climate is also for the environmental problems that are affecting their agricultural practices. There is need to implement proper adaptation strategies, and as such assistance and incentives will be needed to enable the farmers cope with the effects of the changing climate.
Keywords: Climate change, Perception, Zangon Kataf
This study was carried out to examine the causal relationship between climate variability and crop production in Nigeria using time series data covering 1970 to 2008. The data utilized in the study were obtained from various publications of the Central Bank of Nigeria and the Nigerian Meteorological Agency. The data include data on rainfall variability as proxy for climate variability and index of crop production as proxy for crop production. Augmented Dickey Fuller (ADF) test, Vector Autoregression (VAR) lag order selection test and granger causality test were employed in the data analysis. The F statistic of 19.57 and 27.48 from the granger causality test were significant at 1% probability respectively and the results indicated a bidirectional relationship between climate variability and crop production in Nigeria. This implies that variability of climate was significant in influencing crop production and the activities of crop production were significant in influencing the variability of climate over the data period of the study. It is recommended as a matter of urgency that agricultural intensification should be advocated to stem down agriculture related green house gas emissions and farmers should be properly sensitized on coping strategies for adapting to climate variability so as to ensure sustainable crop production in line with the agricultural transformation agenda of Nigeria.
Keywords: Climate variability, Rainfall, Granger causality, Crop production
Soil-inhabiting plant-parasitic nematodes of maize crops were investigated in maize farms in 9 communities at Oba, Idemili South Local Government Area of Anambra State Nigeria. About 59.2% of the maize farms were positive for parasitic nematodes. Farms at Urueze and Umueze recorded the highest with 11.1% each, followed by Umuogali, Okuzu and Aboji (7.4% each). The remaining 5 communities contributed 3.7% each of the total nematode collected. Percentage composition of nematodes from soil samples were Pratylenchus species (25.2%), Helicotylenchus species (24.0%), Meloidogyne species (20.3%), Longidorus species (19.0%), Xiphinema species (6.4%), and Heterodera species (5.1%). Similarly, those recovered from maize roots were Pratylenchus species (30.8%), Meloidogyne species (28.2%), Heterodera species (17.9%), Helicotylenchus species (12.8%), and Longidorus species (10.3%). Xiphinema species was not observed in maize roots. Current intensification of maize production by women in Oba may result to a rise in plant parasitic nematode (PPN) population in infested farmlands. The situation will be worsened by scarcity of farmland because of the prevailing land-tenure system where women, due to gender discrimination in land matters, are restricted to cultivating mixed crops only on small parcels of designated family land. Nematode damage is doubtless an important factor in quality reduction and yield loss in standing maize crops, and may impact heavily on the productivity and means of livelihood of the women farmers. Further study is required on the socio-economic importance of nematodes of maize and other food crops cultivated by women farmers in Oba in particular and Anambra State in general.
Keywords: Plant parasitic nematodes, maize, women farmers, livelihood patterns, Oba, Nigeria
Individuals who are infected with sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are at least two to five times more likely than uninfected individuals to acquire human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection if they are exposed to the virus through sexual contact. The study was undertaken to determine the sero-prevalence of HIV among students presenting with signs of STIs at the University Health Services, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria in other to increase the knowledge of the relationship between HIV and other STIs in the study area where there is no published data. A total of 200 blood samples were collected and screened for HIV using the rapid immunochromatographic test between July and August 2012. Out of the 200 samples screened, 3 samples were reactive to HIV giving a sero-prevalence of 1.5%. The highest prevalence of 3.0% was recorded among students in age group 20 – 24 years old. The virus was detected only among female students with a prevalence rate of 2.2% (3/137) and among only those who presented with signs of Hepatitis B infection (3.1%: 3/98). The virus was not detected among those who presented with signs of syphilis, hepatitis C virus, and urinary tract infections. Voluntary counselling and screening of STI patients for HIV, heightened awareness on the risk factors and prevention and treatment of other STI will help to reduce the spread of HIV infection.
Keywords: Sero-prevalence, HIV, STIs, University students, Zaria, Nigeria
Yoghurt is a common milk product consumed in Zaria and its environs. The product can be contaminated with zoonotic pathogens during processing and packaging. This study was conducted in a Dairy Farm in Zaria to analyze the possible points of milk and milk product contamination using the HACCP template. A total of 80 samples were collected of which 30 were swab samples that included 10 samples each, before and after cleaning the udder of the cows and 10 swab samples from the milking bucket. The remaining samples were, 30 from fresh milk, 10 from processing units and 10 from the finished product (yoghurt). The results showed that swab samples before cleaning the udder had a mean total aerobic plate count of 7.1 ± 0.2 Log10 CFU/cm2, while the value after cleaning was 6.9 ± 0.1 Log10 CFU/cm2. The swab samples from the milking bucket had lower contamination with total aerobic count of 6.4 ± 0.1Log10 CFU/cm2. The milk from external sources (Fulani milk) had the highest microbial contamination with total aerobic count of 3.9 ± 0.1 Log10 CFU/ml while the pasteurized milk had the lowest microbial contamination, with a total aerobic of 2.2 ± 0.2 Log10 CFU/ml. An increased microbial load was observed following analysis of the yoghurt, with total aerobic plate count of 2.7 ± 0.1 Log10 CFU/ml. It was concluded that there is need to improve personal and environmental hygienic practices as while as the packaging procedure in the dairy farm.
Keywords: HACCP, Milk, Yoghurt, Aerobic plate counts, CMT
Rain-fed agriculture is the most weather dependent of all human activities in Nigeria. This paper outlines implications of the reduced and erratic rainfall pattern to agricultural productivity and, suggests science-based mitigation and adaptation strategies based on rainfall prediction. There are various methods for predicting the occurrence of dry spells, all based on the statistical processing of rainfall event in the past. The more simple methods identifies the occurrence of dry spells of a certain length ( 5 days, 10 days) over a certain period (one or two months or more) at the start of the rainy season and statistically assess the chance that such dry spell would materialize. Forty-nine years of daily rainfall data were collected from IAR Meteorological data pool and thirty-five years data were processed using two programmes VISUAL-BASIC.NET and INSTAT+. The probabilities of rainfall occurrences at different levels were determined which are represented as P0, P1, and P2 at zero, first and second orders of Markov chain. The rainfall data were analyzed for weekly, monthly, yearly rainfall averages and rainy days. The concept of “onset of effective monsoon and dry spells” was adopted in the present study. This information regarding the period of occurrence of dry spells in a particular location is valuable in selecting crops and their varieties to obtain the required level of drought tolerance. Prior knowledge of dry spells also helps in planning for the protective irrigations at appropriate times. From this information based on the knowledge of mean date of wet and dry spells at any location, the intercultural operations like hoeing, weeding, spraying, fertilizer application etc. can be well planned in advance.
Keywords: drought, rainfall, variability, prediction, mitigation
Solid wastes, agricultural waste (biomass) inclusive are generated daily in the course of human activities. Their management poses serious challenges to sustainable environmental management. These wastes, however, hold promise in the generation of biofuels through a thermal degradation process of pyrolysis especially fast (flash) pyrolysis. By this process, products composition include solid components (bio-char), liquid components (bio-oil) and gaseous components (syngas) with liquid products making up over 60%, though actual product distribution depends on operating conditions such as temperature, heating rate, biomass composition. These can be formulated to make the biofuel to be used in internal combustion engines. Unlike conventional fossil fuel, utilization of bio-fuel from pyrolysis of biomass does not contribute to carbon dioxide (green house gas) emission into the atmosphere. Therefore, biomass energy is an emerging alternative to the depleting fossil fuels which are great source of greenhouse gases and are non-renewable. This paper highlights the prospects of pyrolysis of solid wastes (biomass) as a source of energy and other valuables thus constituting a valuable and additional option in solid waste management.
Keywords: Pyrolysis, agricultural wastes, bio-fuel, biomass
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) remain a major public health problem in Nigeria and the world at large. A significant challenge to the success of achieving universal access to HIV prevention, treatment, care and support is HIV-AIDS stigma and associated discrimination. AIDS-related stigma and discrimination refer to the prejudice, negative attitudes, abuse and maltreatment directed at people living with HIV and AIDS. The consequences of the stigma and discrimination include being shunned by family, peers and the wider community, poor treatment in healthcare and education settings, an erosion of rights, psychological damage, and a negative effect on the success of HIV testing and treatment. The stigma and discrimination will continue to exist so long as society as a whole has a poor understanding of HIV and AIDS; and the pain and suffering caused by negative attitudes and discriminatory practices. The presence of treatment can make this task easier. Where there is the opportunity to live a fulfilling and long life with HIV, people are less afraid of AIDS; they are more willing to be tested for HIV, to disclose their status, and to seek care if necessary. The task is to confront the fear-based messages and biased social attitudes, in order to reduce the discrimination and stigma directed at people living with HIV and AIDS.
Keywords: HIV/AIDS, Stigmatization, discrimination, Nigeria
Billions of people on a global scale lack potable drinking water, increasing their vulnerability to diarrhoeal and parasitic diseases. A total of 186 well water, soil from dump sites and liquid waste close to sampling well were obtained from parts of Zaria. Using the concentration sedimentation techniques the samples were centrifuged at 500rpm for 5 minutes and examined microscopically. A total of 41(32%) samples contained helminthes eggs/ova were counted out of 128 well water samples tested. The results showed a significant difference between the wet and dry season. Adequate treatment of well water as well as public health education is highly recommended.
Keywords: Health, Helminthes, infection, municipal solid waste, well water.
This experiment was conducted at the Institute for Agricultural Research Farm, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria (Latitude 11o 11” N and Longitude 7o 38” E), located in the northern guinea savanna of Nigeria. The objective of the study is to assess the performance of seventeen herbaceous legumes using their rate of growth as a ground cover against erosion, weed suppression and large biomass production for incorporation into the soil to sustain the fertility and conserve the soil and to identify which of them will be fitted for short fallow or medium fallow. The treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design, with four replications. The results revealed that, Mucuna pruriens (white), Mucuna pruriens (black) and Crotalaria ochroleuca were better significantly (P < 0.05) as short fallow (2-3 months) because of their rapid growth to cover the ground and high biomass production (3428.7, 3304.0 and 2822.7 kg ha-1 dry matter yield respectively), while Crotalaria ochroleuca, Laplap purpureus and Cajanus cajan
Keywords: herbaceous legumes, soil fertility, soil productivity, sustainability, northern Nigeria.
Water is a finite resource already stressed by the demands of today’s global population, irrigated agriculture inclusive. A gravity flow, emitter-less, drip irrigation system was developed from locally available plumbing materials. The manifold lines and lateral lines were set on slopes of 1.5% and 2% respectively. Emitting holes, through which water passes directly to the soil, were drilled at 30cm interval in the lateral lines. Water was passed from an elevated tank, through a pipe filled with sand (sand- damper) before reaching the manifold and the lateral. Preliminary tests were conducted to determine design parameters, grading characteristics of the sand-damper and appropriate diameters of the drilled emitting holes. Results of the tests indicated that at an average operating head of 1.65m, an average flow rate of 1.66 liters/hr was obtained from 1.5mm diameter emitting holes drilled in the first one third length and 1mm diameter emitting holes drilled in the remaining two third lengths of each lateral lines on a layout covering an area of 11.82m2. The system can be modified to cover different areas by varying the texture of sand-damper, the diameters of lateral & manifold pipes, emitting holes diameters and the operating head of water. The total cost of the system was N18, 000:00 (Eighteen thousand naira NG).
Keywords: Sand-damper, emitting hole diameter, flow rate, slope
Climate is the primary important factor for agricultural productivity. Climate Change and variability is a major risk for agricultural production, and is bringing with it alterations in climatic risks patterns. The impact of climate change has potential to undermine development achievements and threaten the food security of millions of people, especially in Nigeria where more than 70% of rural farmers are dependent on rain-fed agriculture for their livelihood. Changes in rainfall pattern, temperature, relative humidity, and soil fertility are the key climate risks faced by Nigerian farmers who must be supported in preparing themselves for the changing situations and taking the steps that will improve their ability to protect their livelihoods. Awareness raising, capacity-building processes and risk management will assist policymakers in assessing the effectiveness of different types of risk protection tools. This paper provides a rigorous, yet accessible, description of risk and risk management tools and strategies that can be adopted to cope with varying weather conditions with an overall aim of enhancing food security.
Keywords: Climate change, agricultural risk, weather forecast, agricultural production insurance and risk management.
The study examined the role of women in agricultural cooperatives in food security in Kauru Local Government Area of Kaduna State. Data for the study were derived from two purposively selected communities, they are Kauru and Kono. Forty respondents were randomly selected from each of the two communities giving a total of 80 women. Tools for the analyses were descriptive statistics to identify socio-economic characteristics of co-operators, identify benefits derived for participation and constraints in participation. Multiple regression Model was used to determine factors influencing women participation in agricultural cooperative societies. The results show that a majority of respondents (77.6%) were between 30 and 49 years and married (77.5%). About (17.1%) had secondary school level education while (7.5 %) had tertiary education. About (40%) were primarily involved in farming. All of the women interviewed were small scale farmers having less than 10ha of farm lands. Major benefits derived by members include access to credit (31.3%), loan and fertilizer (18%). Poverty (22%) and poor cooperative management (22.6%) were found to be the major constraints militating against women participation in cooperatives. Factors that influenced women participation in co-operatives were age and credit, these were significant at .01 level of probability. The study established a high potential for enhancing economic growth in co- operatives in spite of the problems faced by the women. Recommendations were made.
Keywords: Women agricultural cooperatives, food security, Kaduna, Nigeria
The role of women in feeding the household can never be overemphasized. Poverty alleviation
among women is therefore paramount in household development. Improving the women
farmer productivity is therefore a means of improving their income and hence alleviating
poverty among them. The study was conducted in Kaduna State. Random sampling was
employed in selecting a hundred and sixty women farmer respondents for the study. Data were
collected from the 2011 cropping season. The data collected included production and
demographic characteristics of the respondents. It was found that farmer productivity
influenced their poverty status. On the average, the women farmers were able to obtain just
over 55% of optimal output implying that, in the short-run, there is the possibility of increasing
technical efficiency of the women farmers in food crop production in the study area by 45% if
the women farmers would adopt the technology and production techniques currently used by
the most efficient farmers. 78% of random variation in the output of the women farmers was
due to their inefficiency. Poor education, large dependency ratio were some of the sources of
inefficiencies. This coupled with inadequate utilization of inputs forced the women farmers to
operate at the irrational stage 2 of the production function. It was recommended that an
enabling environment that will make inputs readily available to farmers timely be created.
Keywords: Women, Productivity, Poverty, Farmer, Kaduna State.
Climate change is increasingly being recognized as a global crisis, but responses to it have so far been overly focused on scientific and economic solutions, rather than on the significant human and gender dimensions. There is need to place people at the center of climate change responses, paying particular attention to the challenges and opportunities that climate change presents in the struggle for gender equality particularly in the rural areas. An empirical research was conducted using both quantitative and qualitative methods to find, out among other environmental issues, how the degradation of the environmental resource base (land, forest and water) affect gender roles and relations in Agrarian communities of Ebonyi State. It was found that the gradual nature of environmental degradation in the area has direct impact on the people’s sources of livelihoods and indirectly explains changing gender roles and relations.
Keywords: Climate change, global crisis, gender dimensions, livelihood pattern, environmental degradation